Obama, Afghanistan, and American History
Mr. Walker has taught at Ohio Wesleyan University, Florida International University, and the University of Toronto. Most recently, he is the author of National Security and Core Values in American History (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009). He lives in Houston, Texas.On September 14, President Barack Obama rejected comparisons between Afghanistan and Vietnam. He staked out his position even while considering whether, at the behest of Gen. Stanley A. McChrystal, to increase both U.S. troop presence and counterinsurgency operations in Afghanistan. Although Obama averred it is not so, Afghanistan is another Vietnam, just not in the way he and most Americans might imagine.
Afghanistan is another Vietnam because the deployment of troops there or the training and use of proxy forces are presumed to be vital to the nation’s security. In that regard, Afghanistan is also another Iraq or, interchangeably, El Salvador, Nicaragua, the Caribbean, Cuba, and the Philippines. What these far-flung places, and the many lands where U.S. forces are currently stationed, have in common is a prominent role in the nation’s history as a world power.
Since the 1890s, American policymakers and those we might call “defense” or “security” intellectuals, have reflexively equated security with the projection of power abroad. Obama is no different as he indicated in his August address to a Veterans of Foreign Wars meeting in Phoenix, calling Afghanistan “a war of necessity” that “is fundamental to the defense of our people.” One can almost hear Woodrow Wilson musing, as he dispatched troops to the Caribbean and Mexico, “We will teach them to elect good men.” The elusive promise of self-determination in the context of military occupation has long been a central justification for seeking security through engagement abroad.
Even skeptical commentators like conservative George Will and liberal Nicholas Kristof cannot conceive of a complete exodus from Afghanistan. There remain enemy targets to attack and, for some like Democratic Senator Carl Levin of Michigan who recently undertook a fact-finding mission to Afghanistan, there is a nation to be built—as was the case in Vietnam and many other places as diverse as those mentioned above.
What are we to make of this American way of engaging the world, a foundational belief best termed a “security ethos”? One thing is certain: Obama shares it with virtually all his predecessors from William McKinley through Franklin D. Roosevelt and on to George W. Bush. During his campaign for the presidency, he noted: “I have enormous sympathy for the foreign policy of George H. W. Bush.” Put simply, the security of the United States depends to a great degree on a military presence or, since the early years of the cold war, clandestine activities in foreign lands accompanied by an often unrealized promise of nation-building.
In their hearts, many Americans accept the security ethos. Opposition to the war in Vietnam did not persuade them in 1972 to elect George McGovern, who implored his country to “come home” and be true to its basic values. And more than a few members of Congress elected in the wake of Vietnam and Watergate voted to enhance the power of the executive branch when Congress in 1978 passed the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA). Also, whatever Americans really thought about Ronald Reagan, many of them readily accepted the assertion of victory in the cold war, believing it the result of a tough-minded foreign policy rather than problems inherent in the Soviet system.
Even as Americans increasingly turn against the war in Afghanistan, they do not want this opposition to alter the nation’s international posture. That is one implication of public opposition to a draft that would compel America’s sons and daughters to serve in Afghanistan, or elsewhere for that matter. A draft would force us to decide how we are to live in a dangerous world that has partly been of our making for more than a century. Accordingly, there will be no draft.
Has the security ethos kept the nation safe? The historical record is not a good one if honestly appraised. Military commitments have followed upon military commitments, depleting valuable human and material resources while making reliable threat assessment increasingly difficult. We are dependent upon others who do not share our values, most notably the Saudis for their oil and the Chinese for their willingness to support a weak dollar, to sustain our way of life.
President Obama readily acknowledges the importance of values to determining who we are as a people. He spoke of defending core values when he promised to rollback the excesses of George W. Bush’s war on terror. And yet, in one of his final actions as a Senator, he voted to extend FISA, thus perpetuating the primacy of executive power in our system of governance. The problem is that growth of executive authority has been the handmaiden of the security ethos since its inception.
Core values—the heart of American identity since 1787—have not always fared well in the process. A vigilant print and now electronic media, truly open debate over the national interest, curtailment of Fourth Amendment rights, and the rule of law have too often been the collateral damage of the security ethos. Even as Obama’s administration supports renewal of portions of the USA Patriot Act, we are a fractious, less secure people and, thus, a nation terribly in denial of its history on the world stage.
In commemorating those who died on September 11, 2001, the president made it clear that pursuit of an admittedly weakened al Qaeda is not at an end. Perhaps that must be so as the attack of September 14 against insurgents in Somalia indicates. A deeper commitment in Afghanistan, when there is so much to do at home to reverse the costs of the security ethos to our literal well-being and our most cherished values, is not the best way, to employ Obama’s words, “to stand up for the country we all love.” A decision to make a greater military commitment to a war that has lasted longer than both world wars would further undermine the core of American identity, rendering our values little more than ceremonial artifacts.
President Obama’s war in Afghanistan is becoming redolent of ill-considered commitments abroad by his predecessors who, like Obama, were in thrall to the security ethos. That condition should be a matter of grave concern for all Americans. Unless it soon changes, we may indeed have reached an end of history—one exactly the opposite of that which Francis Fukuyama and other devotees of the security ethos celebrated some two decades ago.
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Arnold Shcherban - 10/16/2009
Well-illuminated point and fresh look, Omar.
Thanks for once more time repudiating the alleged classless structure of American society from different angle - sharp class division in make-up of its Army.
I actually forgot who it was by now, but one US politician remarked years ago that had just four-five Congressmen's (Republican and Democrat) sons and/or daughters served in Iraq as non-officers the US troops would have been out of there in no time. I guess the same concerns US Afghan war...
omar ibrahim baker - 10/15/2009
The USA have the material wherewithal: money, weapons , war industries and war contractors etc , to, seemingly, sustain its Empire illusions for, apparently, several decades to come!
Does it have the resolve and for now, i.e. as long as it is a "democracy", the public support for that?
I guess that has been appreciably waning recently!
Figures about the human ,non officer, composition of the armies that were unleashed against both Iraq and Afghanistan show a note worthy ratio of non "standard Americans": of drop out Americans and many Americans to be ,the green card holders presumably promised a quick admission into American citizenship.
Had America had a draft system when both conquests were undertaken the USA, I suspect, would have witnessed end of Viet Nam war like demonstrations and other less peaceful modes of protest.
With the ongoing financial engineered economic crisis grinding down a good number of Americans of the "class" that usual feeds the army with non officer material I suspect that the USA will not, for the foreseeable future, have neither the will nor provide the support for any future empire building or empire sustaining war efforts !
William Walker - 10/15/2009
Self-servingly, let me suggest that Mr. MacDonald (and others) look at p. 299 of my book for a critique of the modified position taken by Fukuyama.
Alan MacDonald - 10/15/2009
Willian C. Walker's article concludes on an interesting, but dangerous note, "Obama's war in Afghanistan .... may indeed have reached an end of history—one exactly the opposite of that which Francis Fukuyama and other devotees of the security ethos celebrated some two decades ago."
Certainly, Francis Fukuyama had long ago repudiated his own "End of History", when, nearly 15 years later in "America at the Crossroads" (2006) he clearly acknowledged that the neoconservative project's legacy was a sacrifice of democracy to power -- and by implication, the power of Empire.
Interestingly, no less an authority than Professor Andrew Bacevich wrote an excellent and prescient Boston Globe article, "Afghanistan ---- the proxy war", on the topic of Afghanistan, but the real focus and 'Proxy' is Empire.
Bacevich outlines that if President Obama approves the McChrystal plan he will be implicitly , "Affirming that military might will remain the principal instrument for exercising American global leadership, as has been the case for decades" ---- i.e. that America will be choosing to be an EMPIRE.
Bacevich rightly senses that Obama’s decision on Afghanistan, the ‘Graveyard of Empires’, will lead us toward either publicly accepting or ending ‘The Last Empire’.
Although the Pashtun - Taliban kicked the Soviet Communist EMPIRE out in the late 1980s, they will not so easily be able to kick-out this 'last Empire standing' on earth, the disguised "Corporate Communist" Empire, without the concurrence of the American people and Obama agreeing, for our own values and future, to voluntarily renounce Empire.
Without question, Chalmers Johnson ("Sorrows of Empire"), Christopher Hedges (" Empire of Illusions"), and many others are convinced that America has already crossed a watershed point to global Empire, but it would be interesting to hear from Fukuyama himself regarding whether we have truly reached "The End of History" --- and whether it is in the form of an American centered corporate/financial Empire, merely hiding behind the facade of its two-party, 'Vichy' sham of democracy.
Arnold Shcherban - 10/13/2009
"War of choice". Such a convenient and discharged term... It has been introduced and made popular in this country, in particular (no coincidence here), as a fig leaf to cover naked AGGRESSION, committed by the US and its NATO partners against Iraq and Afghanistan.
omar ibrahim baker - 10/13/2009
"Unless it soon changes, we may indeed have reached an end of history—one exactly the opposite of that which Francis Fukuyama and other devotees of the security ethos celebrated some two decades ago. "
Or a nation among nations that protects its interests, furthers its security without trespassing over the national sovereignty of others and waging "war(s) of choice".
What is so bad about that??
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