Shouting Down the Israeli Ambassador: Boneheaded? Perhaps... Illegal? Not So Fast
Mr. LeVine is professor of modern Middle Eastern history, culture, and Islamic studies at the University of California, Irvine, and author of An Impossible Peace: Oslo and the Burdens of History (Zed Books, 2009). His blog can be found here. A shorter version of this piece appeared in the LA Times.
The outburst by eleven UC students against Israeli Ambassador Michael Oren has generated a firestorm of condemnation of their actions, including from UCI Law School Dean Erwin Chemerinsky, whose credentials as a defender of free speech rights are unassailable.
Quoting Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Dean Chemerinsky argued that "there was no right to falsely shout 'fire' in a crowded theater." Moreover, he rightly pointed out that government, including public universities, have the right to regulate speech on campus, particularly because freedom of speech would be "rendered meaningless if speakers can be shouted down by those who disagree... There is simply no First Amendment right to go into an auditorium and prevent a speaker from being heard, no matter who the speaker is or how strongly one disagrees with his or her message."
A Heckler's Veto?
As well articulated as this argument is, do the comparisons used actually reflect the situation at hand? Is vigorous and organized, yet clearly limited, protest really the equivalent of "shouting fire in a crowded theater"? Did the students ultimately prevent Ambassador Oren from being heard? Is there really no room for "disruption" of any length or style at a talk by an Ambassador of a country embroiled in a contentious decades long conflict?
In fact, the students' actions, and the reaction by the audience, university, and police, are far more complicated than they might appear on the surface and challenge the assumption by most people that they crossed a clear boundary of acceptable protest and deserve whatever fate is handed to them by the University and even the District Attorney. Several issues in particular raise troubling questions surrounding how the university police, and administration more broadly, handled the event and its aftermath.
First, there is the question of the level of disturbance caused by the students. Ambassador Oren was scheduled to speak and answer audience questions for one and a half hours. The protests by the students were clearly aimed to disrupt his speech, but it's just as clear that they were not trying to scuttle it. Each outburst seems to have lasted under one minute, after which the student left voluntarily. In total, eleven out of ninety minutes were taken up by the protests. Even with the twenty minute break that Oren took during the protest, he was, as Chancellor Drake pointed out in his condemnation of their actions the next day, able to finish his speech. There was also time for audience questions had he chosen to take them.
These facts raise the question of whether, as many university officials and commentators, including Dean Chemerinsky, have argued, the actions of the students constituted a "heckler's veto" and therefore crossed the line between acceptable and prohibited protest. To begin with, the use of this term is questionable, as it has, as a rule, referred not to protesters shouting down a speaker at a gathering but rather to government or other officials canceling or prohibiting a speech or gathering out of fear of the protests it might generate.
Even if we accept the implications of the term, the assertion that the students' actions constituted a veto over Ambassador Oren's right to be speak is debatable. If forty or some similarly large number of students engaged in the action rather than eleven, Ambassador Oren would have been unable to complete his speech and the protest would have thereby crossed the line of acceptable speech. But this was not the case. However uncivil or even obnoxious one might consider the protest, by design (rather than because of the actions of police or university officials to stop them) they did not continue long enough to prevent him ultimately from being heard.
Given the heated nature of Israeli-Palestinian debates on campuses today, one could look at the rough and tumble of the students' protest here and, quoting a basketball analogy often used in the last two minutes of an important game, declare: "No harm, no foul," or at least not a flagrant one.
It is true, as Dean Chemerinsky notes in his op-ed, that universities have the right to limit the free speech rights on campus to a greater extent than is normally allowed in the public sphere. But, at least at UCI, there are no firm guidelines on what those limits are. When I enquired I was referred by a UCI spokesperson to the UCI Dean of Students' Handbook on Campus Policies. But that document offers little guidance to judge whether the protests against Oren's speech crossed the line. Section 30.00, which deals with free speech, does not define any limits to speech beyond the broad statement that the "University is committed to assuring that all persons may exercise the constitutionally protected rights of free expression, speech, assembly, and worship," and that protests "must not, however, interfere with the University's obligation to protect rights of all to teach, study, and fully exchange ideas."
Without a clear ban in place beforehand on the type and style of protest in which they engaged, it is hard to see how they could fairly be subject to severe punishment by the university for their protest, never mind arrest and potential prosecution.
Indeed, this criminalization of dissenting speech is the most troubling part of the whole affair. It is impossible for me to see how university police or the administration can justify arresting these students after they voluntarily left the room and made no efforts to return. Who made this decision? What reading of which law were they using to determine that students who make short protests and voluntarily leave an auditorium can be arrested?
The students clearly constituted no threat to the speaker or the audience--in fact, the video of the event clearly demonstrates that the audience engaged in far more obnoxious behavior than the students, using racial/religious epithets against them and even accosting several of them. Despite the students' pointing this out to police at the time, no audience members were removed from the hall, let alone arrested.
Moreover, previous campus protests, such as against UC Berkeley law professor John Yoo, have resulted in students being removed from the auditorium by police after shouting him down during a talk, but no further disciplinary or legal actions were taken against them. Together, these facts raise serious issues of equity in the application of already vague university regulations and laws.
And even with the arrest, it is unfathomable that the District Attorney would use already limited government resources to prosecute the students for their actions. Yet, to date, there is no indication that they will not face prosecution. But on what basis?
An Undue Limitation on Legitimate Protest?
University officials sent an email to the entire student body in the aftermath of the event that warned students that any such protests would be considered illegal and create "a very serious situation." Specifically, they informed them that "if anyone 'without authority of law, willfully disturbs or breaks up any assembly or meeting that is not unlawful in its character' they can be charged with a misdemeanor under California Penal Code §403. Other penal codes can apply as well."
I am proud that my colleagues in the UCI administration have fought long and hard to protect academic freedom on campus against concerted efforts to diminish it. Yet, while it's not the intention of the university, it seems to me that this email could have a chilling effect on free speech, particularly because there is no attempt to define what "willfully disturbs" an event means. This opens to the door for arresting students for even the slightest disruption of an event.
Imagine how a 19-year-old student would react to being told that he can go to prison and face expulsion from the university merely for engaging in vigorous protest against a speaker who supports enforced genital mutilation of women, the execution of homosexuals or other unpopular policies. Or more to the point, who represented a state that engaged in these practices.
If you were that student, what would you do the next time someone was speaking at the university whose views you strongly disagreed with? Would you risk crossing an undefined line and thereby put your future in jeopardy, or would you stay silent? And what does this environment do to the university's role as a place where boundaries, ideas and actions can be explored? Some of the most creative and impactful protests in history have been extremely theatrical and disruptive. Should students be forbidden from exploring these forms of protest?
And it would seem professors are equally at risk. For example, if a pro-Hamas speaker was coming to campus and Jewish students came to me for advice on how to respond to him, I might well--before now--have suggested they do a die-in at his talk. Put on paper masks of Israelis killed in suicide bombings and come to the front of the hall, say the name and date they were killed, and fall to the floor. Perhaps even have themselves carried out to emphasize the point.
Until now, I would have assumed that as long as this didn't prohibit him from finishing his talk and was non-violent, this would not only be acceptable, but also highly effective and even pedagogical. It would force those who blithely support the right to resist through terror to confront the faces of the victims the actions they support produce. Yet it would now seem that my advice might well be illegal, and lead my arrest, prosecution and even revocation of my tenure, along with the suspension or expulsion and prosecution of the students who staged the protest.
Just as important, this potential criminalization of dissenting speech is not just limited to highly contentious protests surrounding Israel. Students have also been arrested and face harsh disciplinary action across UC for engaging in protests on hot button, but legitimate, issues. Rather than repressing dissent, we should be helping students to find the most creative ways to express it within commonly understood bounds. But making a habit of arresting students for vigorous but non-violent and ultimately limited protest makes this goal that much harder to achieve.
The Missing Ingredient: Power
There is a final issue involved in these protests that Dean Chemerinsky's article did not touch upon, and that is the utter disparity in power between the students and the views they represent, and Ambassador Oren and the government he represents. There is little doubt that the Law School and Political Science Department, who co-sponsored, rightfully saw his presence as a chance to engage an important actor on issues of concern to the UC community.
However, from the Israeli side Ambassador Oren's appearance at UCI was part of an extremely sophisticated, well funded and self-described "propaganda" campaign--known by the Hebrew term "hasbara"--directed by the Israeli government and major American Jewish organizations with the goal of presenting Israel in the most positive light possible on campus.
Oren was speaking at UC Irvine not as an academic presenting research but as an official representative of a government, one of whose jobs is to convince the public at large of the justice of his government's policies. That is one of the most important jobs of an ambassador, but it is based on a very different set of ground rules than that of a scholarly presentation.
In fact, the outrage demonstrated by many (but by no means all) members of the Jewish community at the protests is disingenuous. The World Union of Jewish Students and the Education Department of the Jewish Agency, a quasi-governmental organization with strong ties to most major Jewish organizations, sponsored the publication in 2002 of a 131 page manual for Israel advocacy titled the Hasbara Handbook, which specifically lists as the first of "seven basic propaganda devices" available for use by activists "name calling," and declares that "for the Israel activist, it is important to be aware of the subtly different meanings that well chosen words give. Call 'demonstrations' 'riots', many Palestinian organizations 'terror organizations', and so on."
It would seem that for members of these groups now to call for the expulsion of the so-called "Irvine 11" and threaten to stop donating money to UCI unless harsh measures are taken is a bit like the pot calling the kettle black.
A Malfunctioning Public Sphere
In the United States the normative understanding of the public sphere is that everyone has an equal voice and disparities of power and access are naturally checked at the door, allowing all sides on a debate "equal" footing on which to state their case. But the reality, particularly when it comes to debates around Israel, is far more constricted.
The context of the students' rowdy, and to some "uncivil," protest has to be considered in judging their actions. Ambassador Oren represents a state that has engaged in a 43-year long occupation and settlement enterprise; has, as part of this process, committed large scale and systematic violations of the most basic human rights of Palestinians, from land expropriations to extra-judicial killings to numerous war crimes, all of which are amply documented by Israeli Jewish human rights organizations as well as by the US State Department, United Nations and other international organizations.
Yet, despite this record, Israeli officials routinely receive warm official welcome on college campuses across the United States, something its hard to imagine happening with representatives of countries with similar human rights records. Meanwhile, back in the Occupied Territories, not only Palestinians, but foreign activists and even Israeli Jews are routinely arrested, beaten, tear-gassed and shot and killed merely for engaging in non-violent protests against the on-going expropriations of Palestinian land, demolition of homes, uprooting of trees and orchards, and other human rights violations. The students at UCI are fully aware of these facts, because in the last two years they have gone out of their way to bring Jewish and Israeli speakers to campus who've experienced them first hand.
Put this next to the deference generally shown to Israeli officials, the well-documented unwillingness of the mainstream media to challenge Israeli policies or explanations with any regularity, the political clout of pro-Israel groups, and the powerful Hasbara network on campuses, and their rowdy, uncivil protest suddenly makes more sense.
Indeed, against such a powerful bloc of forces, we can ask how already marginalized Muslim students should be expected to protest against the Ambassador's appearance. We can take a less politicized example and ask how marginalized students should be expected to protest crippling tuition increases even as the quality of their educations diminishes against a powerful President who has declared emergency powers and effectively neutralized the long-cherished notion of "shared governance."
How polite should students really be expected to be in this situation? Is demanding that they be 'civil' and 'respectful' itself an infringement on their free speech rights in a situation where speakers who represent powerful and normally untouchable interests or groups--whether foreign governments or the UC Regents, for that matter--routinely deflect troublesome questions, change the subject or in some cases respond with very narrow and even inaccurate answers that the audience has little chance to challenge.
In short, are there situations when marginalized voices have little recourse accept to push the boundaries of polite debate in order to get their messages heard? And if in doing so they ruffle feathers, upset audience members and perhaps even exercise extremely poor tactical and political judgment in their choice of strategies--as the students in this case have so clearly done, since they both deflected attention away from their cause and played into deeply ingrained stereotypes of irrational and unreasonably angry Muslim men--should the University be punishing them and the state prosecuting them?
My hope is that the members of the UCI community can use this event as a teachable moment, coming together as a campus more clearly to define the limits of acceptable protest, to understand the realities behind the passions displayed by the Irvine 11, and to help figure out how to bridge the still gaping chasm that separates Muslim and Jewish students on campus and the communities they represent. Turning UCI into a First Amendment battle ground will likely not achieve these ends and instead will undermine the vigorous and sometimes rowdy given and take that is essentially to the preservation of free speech and academic freedom in the University.
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Peter Kovachev - 2/25/2010
"Classless Bullies? Ask the Palestinians, in the West Bank and The Gaza Ghetto, about the Bullies?"
Excellent idea, Stephen. This can be a little tricky though, as seemingly sensible questions tend to upset the Classless Bullies ...here I'm unclear whether you mean Hamas alone, or the media-designated "moderates" like Fatah, as well. Everyone's entitled to get upset, but upsetting these ghetto-keepers and kleptocrats usually results in torture, detention, executions or punishments which, in terms of sadistic creativity and primitive savagery, rival the most energetic accomplishments by the Inquisition or the Gestapo. And that can hurt bad.
But maybe I'm a little biased and cynical, so go ahead, get your like-minded friends together and go and do some earnest asking.
N. Friedman - 2/24/2010
An excellent post. One point, however. LeVine is not a law professor. He claims to be an historian. According to the article: "Mr. LeVine is professor of modern Middle Eastern history, culture, and Islamic studies."
I might add, you should read his posts regarding events in your country and the territories and various other matters involving the Middle East. I doubt you would find much correspondence between what you see and what he sees.
art eckstein - 2/24/2010
1. It surely is relevant to this controversy that Oren is a well-recognized and accomplished historian, not a mere political hack. Nor was this a purely political setting: it was a university, where (political) ideas are being discussed, in the guaranteed atmosphere of calm debate.
2. As I said in a posting above, UCI had provided numerous, numerous university settings for the MSU types to state their positions, and as one-sidedly as they wished, and they had done so a dozen times over the past two years. They weren't being oppressed. They just didn't want anyone else to speak.
3 It is also surely relevant that someone who was being interrupted by screaming epithets every few minutes is not really giving a lecture. I am a professor who lectures all the time; I couldn't lecture in such an atmosphere. Professor Levine--you KNOW that Stow is right and that you couldn't lecture in such an atmosphere either.
4. As for the "power" issue, the entire purpose of these storm-troopers is to make the exposition of the Israeli position physically impossible on campus. They have mostly succeeded in this in Britain, using exactly these tactics. Their purpose is to make sure that one side and only one side--THEIR side--is permitted not merely to speak, but to be heard by students.
It's fascism, a totalitarian mindset. And it's based on ignorant self-righteousness--an ignorance they don't want disturbed by listening to others, or even letting OTHERS listen to others. We've seen it before. But now we have liberals like Levine defending it, out of some misplaced tiers-mondisme.
art eckstein - 2/24/2010
Anyone who has seen the video knows that LeVine is downplaying the extent of the disruption.
The purpose of these storm-troopers was not only to prevent the speaker from speaking, but to prevent the audience--their fellow students-- from hearing what he had to say.
Their position violates the speaker's rights and the audience's rights as well. There position is: "WE determine who has the right to speak in an atmosphere conducive to the exchange of ideas on this campus. And WE ALSO have the right to determine whether we will let YOU, the audience hear ideas we consider bad."
The storm-troopers were there voluntarily; no one forced them to go. They could have protested outside the hall. They could have held a counter-talk at the same time elsewhere on campus. They could have waited until the question-time provided by the university, in order to sharply question Oren.
But they weren't interested in any of this. They weren't interested in a debate or an exchange of ideas. Their purpose was fascist.
Exactly two ago this same group held a conference: "The Politics of Genocide: From Auschwitz to Gaza [SIC!]." (Gaza has one of the five highest birthrates in the world, etc, etc.) Last spring (2009) they had almost a dozen speakers on the campus accusing Jews of being Nazis.
There were no disruptions, despite the disgraceful series of speakers and topics and their equally ignorant and moronic statements. But what the MSU believes IT is entitled to in terms of freedom of speech rights, it does not believe that those who disagree with it are entitled to. That's fascism. In 2007 this same group, the Muslim Student Union, disrupted a talk by Daniel Pipes the same way they disrupted Oren.
Professor LeVine, the behavior of the MSU wasn't just "boneheaded". It was hypocritical and in violation of the spirit of debate at a university. The students involved clearly do not understand the purpose of a university. Keep on defending them, though. It just shows, once more, the new and unholy alliance between the bien-pensant Left and fascist religious fanatics from the Middle Ages.
Kenneth Stow - 2/24/2010
Michael Oren is a distinguished historian, not just a diplomat. His mission may have been as ambassador, but when an academic engages in speech and debate, certain rules are expected to be followed, known as those of decency. Oren fully appreciates the rights of Palestinians to speak out, and they would have had their opportunity to do so effectively had they not so rudely interrupted the speaker.
To say that Palestinians do not have a propaganda voice is either ingenuous or disingenuous; take your pick. Palestinian propaganda is loud and strong on all campuses. In the event, being rude did nothing for their cause. Actually, it only convinced those who cannot see that Palestinians do have rights that Palestinians do not deserve them, that they lack the maturity to carry on intelligent debate, during which, their plight might be better seen.
The same goes for the exaggerations of Mr. Levine. The most effective spokesperson for the Palestinians in recent years was Haim Yavin, a revered television newsperson in Israel, who presented a multi-part series on Israeli television making the excesses of the occupation perfectly clear. There are excesses, and there is an occupation. And there are settlers with a radical ideology that frightens most Israelis. But there are also terror attacks, and without the activity of the Israeli security services, there would be more. It is fine to sit as does Levine in the comfort of Irvine CA and rue that his Jewish liberal principals are being trampled upon. It is another to have your daughter call you and say: Dad, that bus, the one that just exploded, it is the bus I take everyday. One's thoughts turn first to his or her children and their safety. Or when my son-in-law was on reserve duty during the operation in Gaza, where were my concerns. Have you, Mr. Levine, ever been under live bombardment, as have the people of Sederot for 3-8 years? I doubt it. Try it, I have in Haifa, and I did not like it. Two weeks produced odd syndromes, like looking for cover a month later, upon hearing an ambulance -- in Middletown CT, USA. The question is how did Israel manage to hold off an operation in Gaza for so long, the very Gaza it had left at such great internal cost, with wounds still open.
The actions of Palestinians, of which the interruption of the ambassador are a microcosm, are their own worst enemy. Here was a terror attack sublimated -- and the casuistry that there were only eleven interruptions, please, what do you take us for, fools? You know Mr Levine very well you could not lecture under those conditions. Were it just an academic lecture and were I the lecturer, I would have walked out by the second or third outburst, and you would have, too. Do not BS us. Only as a diplomat did Oren have the strength or necessity to go on.
By convincing us that the only language they know is interruption and the absence of civility, it is very hard to maintain the hope that so many of us in Israel have maintained for so long of a Palestinian state living in peace with Israel, with open borders and communication. Not to mention they justify our extremists,
Recall that in 1999-2000 we were actually approaching open borders, and most people were happy. After all, the entire Palestinian territory, including Gaza, is a mere 5,000sq. km. What is that, a bit bigger than all of LA? Then Arafat, to avoid having his thefts discovered and knowing he could never be a successful head of state, found an excuse to start the Second Intifada. In doing so, he effectively sealed his people's misfortunes, And, today, it is very hard to chart a proper course.
I am not excusing the excesses. I admit them. But to just list a chain of war crimes, come on, you are Mr. Levine a law professor. You know far better than that.
Professor Jewish History Emeritus
University of Haifa
Stephen Kislock - 2/24/2010
Classless Bullies? Ask the Palestinians, in the West Bank and The Gaza Ghetto, about the Bullies?
Wendy DeMauro - 2/23/2010
Mr. Levine, excuse me, "LeVine" is misrepresenting the behavior of these arrogant, classless bullies, and should have his stopwatch fixed. I attended this presentation & witnessed their behavior during the 11 disruptions before the speaker took a break. Being my tax dollars are subsidizing their tuition, these students should be thrown-out of the University and replaced with students whom respect Free Speech and the Civil Rights movement; especially since these so-called protestors applauded Mr. Oren's statement regarding the Iranian nuclear threat to the region. In my opinion, if all the "Jewish" UCI professors are as self-hating and apologetic as he is, then contributions to UCI should cease.
omar ibrahim baker - 2/23/2010
Shouting down an Israeli or a pro Israel speaker to the point where he abandons the rostrum is infantile and, more importantly, is quite often counter productive...IF the opportunity to debate and question whatever he has to say IS THERE!
My experience is that the worst enemy of the Palestinian cause is IGNORANCE of the facts and that all we need is for the opportunity to air these facts , contrast them with allegations and falsifications , and three quarters of the “debate” is won.
The fourth quarter being inborn incorrigible ingrained ignorance, , metaphysical allegations/affiliations and in born cultural biases and prejudices ie stark, unadorned racism.
Confronting a western, particularly a USA, audience will unveil their abysmal ignorance about those essential facts that made the Palestinian/Zionist-Israeli conflict what it is today: a debatable issue for some!
FACTS that should be made known, usually to the utter amazement of the audience , usually fall under several main subgroups;
a1- the duration of Jewish versus Arab/Moslem cultural predominance over Palestine should be elaborated in detail and
a2-the paramount relevance of WHEN, for how long and at which period in human annals, both occurred .
a3-validity of historical claims
b1 -population counts ie the number of human beings involved at each epoch and
b2-how that demographic composition was altered
C-Political back ground of developments that would stress:
c1-doctrinaire drive, alliances and supporting groups
c2-dogmatic/doctrinaire back ground, motives and ulterior objectives of allies
D-Human Progress and Political rights issues:
d1-End of “stronger tribe displaces and supplants weaker tribe for better pastures “ era
versus Right to Self determination
d3-rights of the indigenous versus the colonizer’s (colon’s),rights of the majority versus the minority
d4- distinction between indigenous minority and forced entry minority (colons)
ie, ultimately, wherein national sovereignty over a land resides: with its indigenous population or forced entry colons and supporting powers !
E-Inalienable Human Rights Issues:
F-Mythology and archaic dogmas:
f1-Divine Promise versus human civil and political rights dictates.
FACTS never fail to carry the majority of even a brain washed , culturally biased and historically hostile audience if properly presented in their genuine overall human progress context.