Will the Real Dr. George Please Stand Up
Mr. Kramer, the former director of the Dayan Center for Middle East Studies at Tel Aviv University, is author of Ivory Towers on Sand: The Failure of Middle East Studies in America.
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And he got glowing press in London. The Guardian reported that his "bravery in tackling looters after the first Gulf war has earned him something of a reputation as an Indiana Jones figure." He also made a great impression on officialdom. "A typically wet performance on Tuesday from culture secretary Tessa Jowell," noted the Financial Times. "She found it 'truly humbling' to meet Donny George, veteran research director of Baghdad's National Museum." Clearly, Dr. George has landed on his feet.
But no one who knows how Saddam's Iraq worked should think for a moment that Dr. George was anything less than a faithful servant of his master. In fact, he seems to have been less the Indiana Jones of Iraqi archaeology, and more its Tariq Aziz. He was the urbane handler of the foreign archaeologists, with one overarching purpose: turning them into an anti-embargo lobby among the well-heeled. To judge from the sanctions-busting by many foreign archaeologists, he did a pretty good job. He certainly enjoyed the confidence of Saddam Hussein. Two years ago, Dr. George boasted to a foreign journalist that Saddam not only read his reports, but returned them with careful notes in the margins. Reports on what? Isn't that something we should know, before we feel "truly humbled" in Dr. George's presence?
In September 1990, within weeks of Iraq's invasion and occupation of Kuwait, the staff of the Iraq Museum turned up in Kuwait, loaded the contents of Kuwait's National Museum into open lorries (their methods were "anything but professional," notes the collection's patron), and hauled them across the desert to the basement of their own museum. Kuwait had been abolished by Saddam, and these treasures were now part of Iraq's patrimony. Most of the plunder was returned to the Kuwaitis--after Iraq's defeat and a U.N. resolution. But some of the collection was damaged, and 59 prime objects "disappeared," including a few spectacular emeralds--just the sort of thing a Baath higher-up would want in his pocket. Wouldn't you like to hear more about that earlier Baath heist from Dr. George, before feeling "truly humbled" in his presence?
If you visited the Iraq Museum over the last couple of years (in defiance of your government's travel ban), Dr. George would have shown you the head of a winged bull statue, the kind found at the entrance to Assyrian palaces. This one had been stolen and cut up by a gang of smugglers. Their bad luck: they got caught. Dr. George then would have told you the fate that befell the smugglers: ten of them were executed. Dr. George called that theft the "crime of the century," explaining that antiquities smuggling endangered Iraq's "national security." He also told a journalist in 2001 that new and harsher penalties for looting of artefacts were due to be put in effect that year, including the death penalty. Wouldn't you want to know how Iraq came to impose such despotic penalties, and whether they were urged upon Saddam by Iraq's archaeological bureaucrats, before allowing yourself to be "truly humbled" by Dr. George?
Now that you no longer feel all that humbled, read this paragraph from the New York Times report of the London meeting:
Although some evidence suggests that people with inside knowledge of the museum were responsible for stealing the more valuable items, Mr. George said he had no information indicating that the culprits were officials connected with his antiquities department or with the government of Saddam Hussein.
"I know how Saddam Hussein cared for antiquities," he said in dismissing the possibility of an inside job. How fortunate for Dr. George, his staff, and all his old superiors! How could anyone believe any of them would be involved?
Dr. George is riding high on the sympathy and guilt of the world, and there are no other Iraqis who can be relied upon to do the salvage work. But a time for hard questions will come. Already, Iraqis aren't returning artefacts to the museum staff, preferring to hand them over to U.S. troops. "It has been a challenge to us that the Iraq museum is closely identified with both the prior regime and its Baathist Party," says Col. Matthew F. Bogdanos, a Manhattan assistant district attorney with the Marines in Baghdad, who is handling the investigation.
I suggest he include a thorough inquiry into the connections between the Iraq Museum and the regime, and seriously probe the possibility that the "crime of the century" was an inside job. Kanan Makiya, while in Iraq, heard that the plundering of the museum "was the work of newly deposed Baathist officials, who had been selling off our patrimony as they saw their days were numbered." Dr. George and other antiquities officials were the loyal servants of these thugs for thirty years. I'm sure they have interesting stories to tell. Certainly no American official should feel humbled in the presence of any of them, and eventually the interrogation lights should be turned on all of them--including Dr. George.
Why? Just listen to the American archaeologists. The American Schools of Oriental Research have described the plundering of Iraq's museum as "comparable to the sack of Constantinople, the burning of the library at Alexandria, the Vandal and Mogul invasions and the ravages of the conquistadors." One American archaeologist, much interviewed these days, has described what happened as "the greatest catastrophe ever to befall a cultural institution in the history of the world," which would make it the crime of all centuries.
If the report in the New
York Timesthis morning is anything to go on, it may yet turn out that
these archaeologists fell for a fabulous exaggeration, propagated largely by
the Baath's apparatchiks at the Iraq Museum. But since we don't know yet, let's
have the mother of all criminal investigations, to find out exactly what happened.
No one should be above suspicion--especially the people who knew where to find
the best lots, who had the keys, and who had long-standing ties with the criminals
who ran the regime. Quite a few people fit that description. None of them is
a U.S. Marine.
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vago - 5/6/2003
In honoring his past services in keeping Iraqi civilization alive, and now that his life time work was plundered probably by the US imperialists, and until the mother of all investigations would publish findings on the plundering of the National Museum, Dr. George should be appointed as a life-time curator for a travelling show of recently uncovered mass graves, torture chambers and relevant toys. The exhibit would symbolize Post-Modern Iraqi Ba'th Culture. The offer should be made in a way that Dr. George would not be able to refuse, and lecture tours for Western fans should be booked for the next season.
NYGuy - 5/6/2003
This is a long overdue article. There is no doubt that the looting has been politicized by the antiwar and hate America groups, who deliberately misrepresented and demeaned the U. S. Government and military without knowing the facts and falsely accusing them of misconduct, including the outrageous quote that "the U. S. military stood around for 48 hours and watched the looting". These comments were made before Baghdad had been captured, fighting was still going on, the city was not safe, there was a threat of suicide bombers and the city had not yet been fully stabilized.
Thus for historians and others who mindlessly spout off false facts about the military during war time it is not unreasonable to assume they are putting U. S. troops overseas in greater danger. The tactics are similar to those used by them during the Vietnam War when Jane Fonda went to Hanoi. Veterans of that period also said her actions put them in greater danger. Many considered such activies as un-American and unpatriotic.
To get a quick idea of the false propaganda that was being spewed out by "noted historians" see the article by Professor Keith Watenpaugh under Historians as Activists on this site. It contains much of the spin that was published. I believe this was originally printed in the New York Times around the time of the looting. Among the accusations he makes is the following:
”What happened in Baghdad over the weekend is cultural genocide and responsibility for it must lie with the US. The failure to protect an occupied country's national heritage is a war crime under the Geneva Convention.”
“I personally cannot escape the conclusion that this monumental tragedy for Iraq's national history was the result of Rumsfeld's willful ignoring of all the warnings received and the unilateralism with which the Anglo-American forces proceeded. I put most of the blame on the civilians at the head of the Department of Defense.”
The best was a description of a “Vast right wing conspiracy”. Tom Abate, writing in the San Francisco Chronicle (April 12, 2003): One irony in Wednesday's images from Baghdad, said Christine Knoke, assistant curator at the Norton Simon Museum in Pasadena, is that the statue-destroying Iraqis and U.S. soldiers were collaborating on the destruction of an idol -- an act endorsed, in certain contexts, by fundamentalist Muslims and Christians alike. This was right off the wall.
And on last week’s article by Professor Pipe’s he reports:
The Bush administration, say academic specialists on the Middle East. they proceed to compare American leaders to some of the worst mass-murderers in history.
· Hamid Dabashi of Columbia University: U.S. political leaders are "destroyers of civilization" like Attila the Hun, Genghis Khan and Tamerlane.
· Michael Sells of Haverford College: They are "barbarians" whose "criminal neglect" makes them comparable to Nero.
· Said Arjomand of the State University of New York (Stony Brook): The U.S. government's "war crime" renders it akin to the Mongols who sacked Baghdad in 1258. See his “article” on HNN two weeks ago.
It is difficult to believe that these outrageous comments were made by objective observers with no ax to grind. Particularly when the facts that are now coming out daily clearly show that there was no basis in fact for such inflamatory remarks and that they showed a total disregard for the saftey of our military personnel.
Suetonius - 5/5/2003
If the Ba'athists looted the museum on their own during the war, and there are war crimes provisions against looting, can the Ba'athist members who are shown to have looted be tried for war crimes?
Perhaps someone who know the Genevea conventions a little better can answer this.
cassandra - 5/5/2003
Finally, a reasonable and sensible article that discusses the looting without the ideological bent we've seen in this space in recent weeks.
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- UC Santa Barbara History Department featuring a series on the Great Society at 50
- Historians are trying to recover censored texts from World War I poets