Art show sheds light on Britain's black Victorians
With more than 100 works of art in a wide range of media from paintings to sculpture, prints, photography and ephemera, the exhibition dispels the idea that there were only a few black people in Britain at the time.
Katherine Dickinson, curator of exhibitions at the Manchester Art Gallery, dismissed the common assumption that black people were always peripheral characters in the background.
"Research and this exhibition proves that there are a lot of high-profile figures," she said.
"The portraits in the exhibition include a number of quite well-known figures. The range of roles in which black people are presented is greater than we might assume."
Portraits of Crimean nurse and heroine Mary Seacole, (the black Florence Nightingale), celebrated actor Ira Aldridge, composer Samuel Coleridge-Taylor and acrobat Miss La-La, a trapeze artist who caught the eye of Degas hang alongside pictures of Sara Bonetta, Queen Victoria's god-daughter, political refugee Prince Alamayu and Arthur Wharton, Britain's first professional black footballer.
Caroline Bressey, a researcher into the lives of black people living in Victorian Britain, says looking at images of black people has become important.
"One of the interesting things about Victorians is that even though they're great record keepers, one of the things they tended not to record was the color of someone's skin or their ethnicity," she explains. "You'll never find that in the census as a box to tick as you do now."
Much of the research depends on records from institutions such as Barnardo's and the census, so is patchy for charting the lives of the working-class black community.
The portraits go some way to filling in the gaps. The portraits are also an invaluable barometer of the rise of racism in Victorian Britain. One of the significant changes in the 19th century was the abolitionist cause and the support to free black slaves.
Painted early in the century the fine noble portrait of Simpson's captive slave became emblematic of the cause in 1827.
But attitudes changed in part due to the well-publicized and bloody Indian Mutiny and violent protests in Jamaica.
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