Brooke Allen: Moral Minority–America’s Skeptical Founding Fathers

[Writer Brooke Allen, whose most recent book is Moral Minority: Our Skeptical Founding Fathers, is now a blogger at Britannica.]

I was interested to read the blog postings by Joseph Ellis and Michael and Jana Novak, having recently completed a book on the religious beliefs of the Founding Fathers. I was initially inspired to write the book after hearing from various politicians and pundits the statement that the United States had been founded on Christian principles. Having done a fair amount of reading on the subject, I felt this was a gross misrepresentation. Mr. Ellis is correct, I think, when he says that “the common conviction that bound together most of the Founders was the belief in the complete separation of church and state.”

There were Founders who disagreed with the policy of separation, of course, and to read about the deliberations in the Virginia legislature over Jefferson’s Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (to which the opposition was led by the eloquent Patrick Henry) is to get some idea of the force of the resistance to church/state separation. But the views of Jefferson and Madison prevailed, and were duly enshrined in the U.S. Constitution and First Amendment.

The Founders that I concentrated on in my book, Moral Minority: Our Skeptical Founding Fathers were the six I considered the most famous and influential: Franklin, Washington, Adams, Jefferson, Madison, and Hamilton. Like one of the respondents to Mr. Ellis’s first blog, it seems to me though while Mr. Ellis calls “diversity” the “dominant pattern” of these men’s beliefs, they actually had a great deal in common, all being what the blogger correctly calls “theistic rationalists.” None of these men, with the exception of Hamilton towards the end of his life, could strictly be called a Christian.

While I don’t see Washington as a pantheist, I think Mr. Ellis’s categorization of him as a Stoic is a good one; some of his contemporaries (as one can read in the letters of John Adams and Benjamin Rush) agreed with this description. To argue, as the Novaks do, that Washington’s use of 102 different names for the Deity is evidence of his adherence to Christianity is a fallacy; in fact, this practice indicates that he was a Deist rather than a Christian. When he made public pronouncements, he used vague and general names like this, without specific Christian connotations, so as to include all Americans, including Jews, Muslims, and American Indians. (One of the names the Novaks do not cite is “Great Spirit,” to which Washington assured his Native American listeners that he, like them, prayed.)

The name of Jesus is very conspicuously absent from all of Washington’s papers (both public and private), statements, letters, and addresses. The Novaks say they found Jesus Christ mentioned only once (in some 35 volumes of Washington’s papers). I was not even able to find that one mention. But I did discover that Washington omitted the name of Jesus Christ from his speeches when they were written by others, and when he wrote avuncular letters of advice to his young relations he declined to discuss religious belief or practice, though he had plenty to say on the subject of morality. Not only did Washington not avail himself of a minister of religion when he lay on his deathbed, but he refused to take communion when he went to church. Even the minister at the church he attended during his presidency asserted that Washington was a Deist....

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