Some additional comments to Keith Halderman.
Helmut Schoeck’s Envy discusses various kinds of Envy such as Vulgar and Indignation varieties.
With respect to the State, a major point in my “Egalitarianism and Empire,” is that with Equality there is always a great deal of human differentiation. Empires tend to offer massive Egalitarian redistribution welfare systems (today we call them “entitlements” as if they were rights), based precisely on the appeal of Envy.
See the article in today's NYT"Entitlement Costs Expected to Soar," which indicates the costs of Social Security and Medicare are expected to double shortly. But not to worry! I am assured by the Neocons, that after our nation-building is completed in Iraq, Haiti, Kosovo and elsewhere, these nations will all band together in gratitude to offer us a kind of Marshall Plan to help us stay afloat.