As we know,
There are known knowns.
There are things we know we know.
We also know
There are known unknowns.
That is to say
We know there are some things
We do not know.
But there are also unknown unknowns,
The ones we don't know
We don't know.
Controversial events or eras seem to spark waves of biographies, as the participants work furiously to justify their own actions. Post-World War I, British politicians and generals wrote a raft of histories and memoirs to explain and justify their actions. David Lloyd George's War Memories were just such a set of books, designed to"explain and vindicate" his actions in the First World War. Winston Churchill was past master at such literary exercises, producing multi-volume works that laid out his roles in both world wars, albeit as histories of the wars, rather than simply memoirs. Perhaps Churchill's ego was too small to be contained by mere autobiography. As Arthur Balfour, a British politician of the time, wrote, The World Crisis, Churchill's account of the First World War was"autobiography, disguised as a history of the universe." In that desire to vindicate comes an equal temptation to shape the events favorably, a desire that Rumsfeld seems not to have escaped, as Fred Kaplan points out at Slate:
Many autobiographies exhibit [the tendency to self-aggrandizement] to some extent. It can even be tolerable if it's joined to an engaging style or sage insights about broader matters. Rumsfeld's book has no such redeeming features. And even if it did, its distortions and lies (I use the term advisedly) are just too blatant to be countenanced.Rebuttal, indeed.
 G.W. Egerton, “The Lloyd George” War Memoirs”: A Study in the Politics of Memory,” The Journal of Modern History 60, no. 1 (1988): 55-94.
 John Perry, Winston Churchill (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2010), 102.