According to Wikipedia, this was apparently the long-term goal of Sayyid Qutb, the founder of the most rabid and violent variant of Islamic Sunni fundamentalism:
"'Rather than support rule by a pious few, (whether a dictator(s) or democratically elected), Muslims should resist any system where men are in "servitude to other men" — i.e. obey other men — as un-Islamic and a violation of God's sovereignty (Hakamiyya) over all of creation. A truly Islamic polity would have no rulers — not even have theocratic ones — since Muslims would need neither judges nor police to obey divine law. It was what one observer has called "a kind of anarcho-Islam.'"
Taken in the larger context of Qutb's celebration of coercion in the service of Islam, however, this seems about as genuine as the Marxist view that the state will eventually "wither away."