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Reconstruction



  • Impeachment May Not Work. Here’s the Next Best Way to Dump Trump

    by Eric Foner

    The 14th Amendment empowers Congress to bar persons involved in insurrection against the United States from holding office. This can't remove Trump, but it can stop him (and anyone found to have plotted the Capitol rioting) from returning to office. 



  • Josh Hawley Dodges Question During Fox News Grilling on Election Challenge

    Senator Josh Hawley's demands that Congress intervene in the electoral vote certification depends on ignoring that A: Congress formed such a commission in 1877 after three states failed to certify their vote and B: the resulting compromise forfeited the politial and civil rights of Black Americans. 



  • An American Pogrom (Review)

    by David W. Blight

    David W. Blight reviews a new book on the 1898 Wilmington massacre and the violent overthrow of multiracial democracy in North Carolina. 



  • How to Steal an Election

    by Jon Grinspan

    Many of our election rules date from that moment, around 1900, when Americans redirected their “love of smart dealings” toward tightening up electoral systems, rather than finding ways around them.  



  • The Oligarchs’ Revenge (Review)

    by Manisha Sinha

    Heather Cox Richardson's book makes an essential argument that the conceptual distinction between class and race in American history obscures the way that American elites have worked to create and defend oligarchy. 



  • The Origins of Policing in America

    Historian Khalil Gibran Muhammad and Media Studies scholar Chenjerai Kumanyika explain how American policing grew out of efforts to control the labor of poor and enslaved people.



  • Our Long, Forgotten History of Election-Related Violence

    by Jelani Cobb

    A weather forecast is not a prediction of the inevitable. We are not doomed to witness a catastrophic tempest this fall, but anyone who is paying attention knows that the winds have begun to pick up. 



  • For the First Time, America May Have an Anti-Racist Majority

    by Adam Serwer

    Atlantic writer Adam Serwer argues that people who want to understand this year should look not to 1968, but to 1868, when a moment of potential for establishing interracial democracy through government intervention seemed possible. 


  • Americans Have Feared Another Civil War Since the End of the Last One

    by Richard Kreitner

    The ink was hardly dry on Lee's surrender at Appomattox before Andrew Johnson's conciliation toward the former Confederacy clashed with the unfulfilled goals of freed slaves and radical Republicans to threaten further violence. These fault lines have been hidden but never healed in the restored American union.



  • The Massacre That Emboldened White Supremacists

    by William Briggs and Jon Krakauer

    The Colfax Massacre, sparked by white supremacists' refusal to accept a state election result, set in motion a series of legal rulings that made it virtually impossible for the federal government to prosecute civil rights violations by private citizens, ensuring that mob violence and racial oppression would continue.