Basketball Bribery: A Familiar Scandal





Mr. Beres served as University of Oregon Sports Information Director from 1976 to 1982. In 1970 he served as national chairman of the Intercollegiate Committee on Gambling Awareness while he was Sports Information Director at Northwestern.

 Whether its Military, History, War tactics and strategies or weaponry Military book club covers it all.

Those of us who have followed college basketball for half a century or more will remember the stunning impact on the game when several of the nation's foremost teams were charged with conspiring with organized gamblers. That was back in 1951, 12 years after the Tall Firs of Oregon won the first NCAA basketball title in 1939.

Players from the University of Kentucky, Bradley University and the 1950 NCAA champions, City College of New York (CCNY), were penalized for taking bribes from gamblers. Now a New York Times article by Robert Lipsyte suggests that what hit the three major basketball programs-- destroying one of them--may be spreading like a cancer to many intercollegiate programs a generation later. He wrote that some "say it happens all the time, and will bring down college basketball."

That ominous possibility suddenly grows in concern at an unlikely place, the University of Oregon, where I am, and where this year's high-ranked team has potential to repeat the Tall Firs feat. With that prospect comes danger, as gamblers are attracted-- as they were in 1951-- to the best teams. Oregon coach, Ernie Kent, like his colleagues around the country, has alerted his players to the danger. Still, as the Times writer suggests, the threat not only is there-- it may be spreading.

What causes some players to listen to the pitch from gamblers is that they are not asked to "throw" games. Instead, they shave points to assure the final result will allow gambler s to win heavily by beating the margin of victory predicted by those in Las Vegas who issue so-called point spreads on games. If a team is predicted to win by 10, gamblers can win heavily by bribing players on the favored team to win by a smaller margin wagered by the gamblers.

Living in Peoria, Ill., a half-century ago, I knew players on the Bradley team involved in the scandal. They told me it seemed innocent enough to shave points, not lose, for money-- especially when they were illegally given money at school with the coach's blessings. When they returned to the lockerroom after practice, often they'd find $20 bills stuck in their street shoes by boosters of the team. It was no bribe, but illegal under NCAA rules.

The Bradley star player, Gene Melchiorre, still today is an outcast in Peoria, where the school refuses to hang his jersey in the gym with those of other all-Americans. The price was worse at CCNY, where the team, coached by the fabled Nat Holman, lost support, and the sport eventually was dropped.

Twenty years after the first big scandal, I chaired the Intercollegiate Committee on Gambling Awareness. The committee suggested methods colleges could use to defuse the gambling threat. They were ignored by directors of athletics who had their heads buried in the ground. My director at Northwestern University, Tippy Dye, once basketball coach at the University of Washington, made his displeasure with me clear: "Don't you ever again stick your nose in the business of the directors!"

In the late '90s, Dye's myopia resulted in the gambling chickens coming home to roost at a very unlikely place-- Northwestern, a private university, with a sports reputation as a "loser." Players at Northwestern were found guilty of point shaving in football as well as basketball. The basketball bribes were especially embarrassing. The lowly regarded Northwestern team was bribed to shave points in reverse-- to lose by more than predicted. Lipsyte quotes today's athletics director at Northwestern, Rick Taylor: "Gamling is America's stealth addiction. We can't protect ourselves against the kid who thinks he's above the law."

Taylor makes an awkward try to get off the hook, claiming privacy laws prevent schools from looking for player contacts with gamblers. He ignores the way college sport has mushroomed financially. Million dollar contracts for coaches make it easy for some athletes with tight budgets to feel they can justify point-shaving to make a few dollars.

It is fun watching this great Oregon team. Unfortunately, its great ability means the NCAA will be watching, too, just in case.


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Fredrika Sorseleian - 1/13/2004

A Saga on the Svekish Model Enslavement Collaboration; Slave handle beyond modernized masks like Swedish Model Hypocrisy...(Int. English language version)

**

- Enslavment in the EU, too? - Unfortunately, it is a kind of
modernized well-masked industry, nowadays.. Did you watch tv documentaries on
this subject? Slave Handels' mainly actors (mostly) are the fascistical
(Zionism, Rascism, Discrimination, Fraud etc.) actors, too? asked Tv Channel
Independent Laponia in April 1995 - Answer?
- We are living the truth; yes! Well described... **
- Scandal over IKEA founder's Zionist&Nazi collaboration past... Ingvar Kamprad
betrayed both sides...
- Incredible!... When he could betray a one single Jew, the lobbies could izole
him...
- Medie use terms wrong, I am repeate to you... It should be "Kamprad
collaborated with both sides"...
- It is starange... Even on this case Jews could insist to want compensation...
- Nothing is wrong.. IKEA choose mostly the Jews, therefore the lobbies were in
silence...
- All other things are only "show"... For instance, the Stockholm daily Jewish
newspaper, Expressen, has revealed that the founder of the world famous
furniture chain IKEA was involved in collaborator groups in his youth, having
discovered the name of Ingvar Kamprad in the archives of the pro-nazi activist
Per Engdahl (International Herald Tribune 9.11.94; Guardian 9.11.94). But nobody
accused Kamprad.. They all together agitate the amateur jornalists... Crocodiles
playing with rats, so easy...
- ?!

** - Engdahl's relatives working now for lobbies for
instance manipulating the Nobel committees to fix giving the prizes to the
Jewish propagandists... They have never been stopped.. Ingvar Kamprad was never
been stopped but the free discussion banned in SvekJa... For example
ddistribution of Mein Kampf stopped ... Ahmed Rami's all books and Oskar
Landahl's book; "Jewish Question" banned and much more leftist researchers under
heavyy oppression process... Who are against enslavment been banned.. Who win
money by legal masked enslavement, free! - Is it democracy or
hypocrisy? - Swedish model democratic Fascism... A Swedish company,
Hagglund, is to be prosecuted for breach of copyright after hundreds of copies
of Mein Kampf were confiscated by the Swedish authorities at the request of the
state of Bavaria, which owns the copyright and has tried to block distribution
(Guardian 22.12.94).IRR European Race Audit, Bulletin no 12, March 1995)...
**
- What are you doing now?
- I am looking at the Svekish people, who practizing...
- What are you thinking on their practice?
- "None are more hopelessly enslaved than those who falsely believe they are
free."
- ...you mean?
- ...like Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
- ?!

**

- Did you hear, the false travelling bureaus which collabrate with Zionist
lobbies, selling pass... - I read that ENSLAVEMENT and TRAFFICKING
ACts... It mostly realizes between EUROPEAN DIRTY CAPITALIST AUTHORITIES and
BENGALIAN OVERSEAS MAFIA...
- SwedoBengalian Mafia 'Islam-gang' took its dirty mask off... - Never
mind?! - Believe in me!... Islam-gang comments during the last press
interview in Stockholm; 'We are not the only one, who pays so much money to
official authorities in both Bangladesh and Sweden for trafficking and slave
handle etc. - If you can, accuse the authorities' deal on dirty money!
- What means it?! Well, Bengalian Prime Minister, European Union's any
authorities and the Swedish Migration Office chiefs will understand those words
better... ** - Here is tha fact; story
files of Swedo-Bengalian Mafia's Trafficking and modernized Slavery - I wish to
read here... Police estimate more than 15 000 women and children are smuggled
out of Bangladesh every year. ("Boys, rescued in India while being smuggled to
become jockeys in camel races," http://www.elsiglo.com, 19 February 1998) ... As of
February 1998, there were 200 Bangladeshi children and women awaiting
repatriation in different Indian shelters. ("Boys, rescued in India while being
smuggled to become jockeys in camel races," http://www.elsiglo.com, 19 February 1998)
Bangladesh and Nepal are the main sources of trafficked children in south Asia.
(Masako Iijima, "S. Asia urged to unite against child prostitution," Reuters, 19
June 1998) 27 000 Bangladeshi women and children have been forced into
prostitution in Indian brothels. (Centre for Women and Children Studies reports,
"Women Forced into Indian Brothels," June 1998) More than 200,000
Bangladeshi women were trafficked from 1990 to 1997, with 6 000 children
trafficked, abducted or reported missing during that time. (Center for Women and
Children's Study report, Zahiduzzaman Faruque, "Women, children trafficking in
Bangladesh," Kyodo, 5 May 1998) Over the last decade, 200,000 Bangladeshi
girls were lured under false circumstances and sold into the sex industry in
nations including Pakistan, India and the Middle East. (Tabibul Islam, "Rape of
Minors Worry Parents," Inter Press Service, 8 April 1998) A
non-government source reports that about 200 000 women and children have been
trafficked to the Middle East in the last 20 years. Different human rights
activists and agencies estimate 200-400 young women and children are smuggled
out every month, most of them from Bangladesh to Pakistan. A women lawyers'
association estimates that on an average, 4500 women and children from
Bangladesh are being trafficked to Pakistan each year and at least 200 000 women
have been trafficked to Pakistan over the last 10 years. The Indian Social
Welfare Board estimates that there are 500 000 foreign prostitutes in India - 1
percent are from Bangladesh and 2.7% of prostitutes in Calcutta are from
Bangladesh. (Bangladesh CEDAW Report, 1 April 1997) More than 15 000 women
and children are trafficked out of Bangladesh every year. (Police estimates,
http://www.webpage.com/hindu/daily/980220/03/03200004.htm 19 February 1998)
Every day, over 50 women and children are trafficked out of Bangladesh through
the land border areas. (Trafficking in Women and Children: The Cases of
Bangladesh, UBINIG, p.8, 1995) 500 Bangladeshi women are illegally
transported into Pakistan every day. (Press Statement, Bangladesh National Women
Lawyers Association, "Open sale of little girls at Tanbaza brothel," Daily Star,
2 July 1998) About 200 Bangladeshi women and children are smuggled out of the
country each day, most end up as prostitutes. Many of the women and children are
extremely poor, and lured with false promises. ("Human Smuggling from Banglsdesh
at alarming level," Reuters, 26 may 1997) In Bangladesh, the collection
points for trafficked women are usually far from the border points. Women
rescued in Dinajpur (in the North) were from Cox's Bazar (in the South). Girls
from the southern part of Bangladesh are usually trafficked across the northern
borders. (Trafficking in Women and Children: The Cases of Bangladesh, p.19,
UBINIG, 1995) During the past ten years an organized gang sold more
than 10,000 women from Chapainababong to traffickers. A young girl was sold by
her mother to a trafficker for 10,000 takas. Families are targeted who have
daughters eligible for marriage and are very poor. There is a demand for
Bangladeshi girls. (Daily Sangbad report, 16 August 1993, Trafficking in Women
and Children: The Cases of Bangladesh, pp.34, 35 & 36, Daily Sangbad, 16 August
1993, UBINIG, 1995) In Kushtia area, some villages are used as
stations for the traffickers. Rajshahi borders of Bidirpur and Premtali are used
because there are fewer check points. Jessore border is very popular with
traffickers. Some hotels and godwons are used to keep the girls brought from
different parts of the country. At least 13 women are being trafficked every
day. In eight months police could rescue only 28 women who were being
trafficked, and arrest 38 traffickers. Usually the traffickers are not
accompanying the women while crossing the border. Therefore, it is difficult for
the border police to arrest them. There are female members in the trafficking
gang, which helps to hide their identity." (Ittefak, 15 October 1990, police
sources, Trafficking in Women and Children: The Cases of Bangladesh, pp.19 & 20,
UBINIG, 1995) 30 000 Bangladeshi women are in brothels in Calcutta,
India. ("Human Smuggling from Banglsdesh at alarming level," Reuters, 26 may
1997) In 1994, 2 000 Bangladeshi women were prostituted in 6 cities in
India. (CATW - Asia Pacific, Trafficking in Women and Prostitution in the Asia
Pacific) There are 200 trafficked Bangladeshi women and children in
detention centers in India awaiting repatriation.
(http://www.webpage.com/hindu/daily/980220/03/03200004.htm, 19 February 1998)
Between January 1990 and September 1997, there were 2 545 cases of trafficked
children reported in the media in Bangladesh - 1 262 boys and 1 283 girls.
During the same time period, 2 212 trafficked children were rescued. (President
of the Centre for Women and Children Studies, Ishrat Shamin, "Trafficking in
Women and Children: A Human Rights Crisis) Between January 1990 and
September 1997, there were 845 cases of kidnapped children reported in the media
in Bangladesh. 512 or 84% were rescued. (President of the Centre for Women and
Children Studies, Ishrat Shamin, "Trafficking in Women and Children: A Human
Rights Crisis) 74 people, including 14 children, were rescued from
Satkhira, en route to the border to India. The traffickers had taken 2000 to
5000 takas from each person. (Dainik Bangla report, 8 October1993, Trafficking
in Women and Children: The Cases of Bangladesh, p.33, Dainik Bangla, 8 October
1993, UBINIG, 1995) The price for girls is between Tk. 10 000 to
Tk. 30,000 for beautiful and healthy girls. Children are bought for Tk. 7 000 to
Tk. 8 000. (Trafficking in Women and Children: The Cases of Bangladesh, pp. 20
&21, UBINIG, 1995) 2,7% of prostitutes in India are Bangladeshi,
the largest population of foreigners. The majority of these females are under
18. (Social Welfare Board of India, Fawzia Karim Firoze & Salma Ali of the
Bangladesh National Women Lawyer Association," Bangladesh Country Paper: Law and
Legislation") Between January 1990 and September 1997, there were 2 662
cases of missing children reported in the media in Bangladesh. Only 228 missing
children, or 9 percent, were rescued. (President of the Centre for Women and
Children Studies, Ishrat Shamin, "Trafficking in Women and Children: A Human
Rights Crisis) Children from middle class families risk kidnapping from
schools and being trafficking to Middle Eastern countries. (Trafficking in Women
and Children: The Cases of Bangladesh, p.9, UBINIG, 1995) There are two basic
methods that traffickers obtain women and children: One is to kidnap them. The
second, is to lure the women with false promises of jobs and marriage options.
Traffickers pose as prospective grooms, then take the girls out of the border as
their wives. (Trafficking in Women and Children: The Cases of Bangladesh, pp.16
&17, UBINIG, 1995) Girls are sold to traffickers by their parents who
consider them to be a burden after a certain age. (Trafficking in Women and
Children: The Cases of Bangladesh, p.17, UBINIG, 1995) Women, who believe
that traffickers will assist them to find legitimate jobs, pay traffickers from
Tk. 2 000 to Tk. 6 000. (Trafficking in Women and Children: The Cases of
Bangladesh, p.18, UBINIG, 1995) Women and children from India are
sent to nations of the Middle East daily. Girl children in prostitution and
domestic service in India, Pakistan and the Middle East are tortured, held in
virtual imprisonment, sexually abused, and raped. (Indrani Sinha, SANLAAP India,
"Paper on Globalization and Human Rights") Sanlaap shelter Sneha has 25 to
30 rescued prostituted children. 60% of the children rescued from prostitution
are HIV positive. (Indrani Sinha, SANLAAP India, "Paper on Globalization and
Human Rights") 10 000 Bangladeshi children are in brothels in Bombay and Goa
India. (Trafficking Watch Bangladesh, "Human Smuggling from Banglsdesh at
alarming level," Reuters, 26 may 1997) **
- Methods and Techniques of Trafficking? . - Well, Traffickers use 20 main
points in 16 western districts of Bangladesh near the Indian border. The main
trafficking route is Dhaka-Mumbai-Karachi-Dubai. Many of the victims end up in
Middle East nations. (Zahiduzzaman Faruque "Women, children trafficking in
Bangladesh" Kyodo, 5 May 1998) In India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal,
child marriage is accepted, and considered the best method to procure girls for
prostitution. (Indrani Sinha, SANLAAP India, "Paper on Globalization and Human
Rights") Forms of trafficking include fake marriages, sale by parents to
"uncles" offering jobs, auctions to brothel owners or farmers, abduction.
Traffickers and procurers pose as prospective husbands to impoverished families.
They take the girls away and sell them into prostitution. A large number of
"brides" have been collected in this manner and brought as a group to Pakistan
where they are handed over to local traffickers. (CATW - Asia Pacific
"Trafficking in Women and Prostitution in the Asia Pacific" Bangladeshi
women have been auctioned off to farmers looking for a combination wife and
farmhand in Pakistan, India and Japan (CATW - Asia Pacific, Trafficking in Women
and Prostitution in the Asia Pacific) Bangladeshi women who are trafficked and
prostituted in debt bondage in India's sex industry are forced to work longer
hours and serve more men than local women. (CATW - Asia Pacific, Trafficking in
Women and Prostitution in the Asia Pacific) **
- Cases? - In May 1998, 217 Bangladeshi women and children who had
been trafficked into India were repatriated. (Zahiduzzaman Faruque,"Women,
children trafficking in Bangladesh," Kyodo, 5 May 1998) In 1992, 74
Bangladeshi women and children on their way to be sold in Pakistan were found
bound and gagged in the cargo hold of a boat. (CATW - Asia Pacific, Trafficking
in Women and Prostitution in the Asia Pacific) One trafficker was arrested and
46 people (12 male, 9 female and 25 children) from Jessore were rescued by
police as they were being trafficked by bus across the border into India. All
were held in police custody. (Ittefak report, 16 June 1993, Trafficking in Women
and Children: The Cases of Bangladesh, pp.31 & 32, Ittefak, 16 June 1993,
UBINIG, 1995) 49 men, women and children from Cox's Bazar were
rescued and 2 traffickers were arrested by Savar Police. The people were sent to
safe custody and the traffickers were placed under police remand for three days.
Each person had paid the traffickers 3-4 thousand taka to assist them across the
border via Godagari, Rajshahi, Benalope and Jessore. Middle aged men and women
would be taken to hospitals in Bombay and Madras, and their blood, kidneys,
eyes, skin and hair would be sold to hospitals. The young girls would be sold to
the brothels in Pakistan and India. Young men would be sold as bonded laborers.
The traffickers prefer young girls and children. For each young girl (the
traffickers) are paid 10-12 thousand taka and for each child they are paid 7-8
thousand taka. (Ittefak report, 28 October 1993, Trafficking in Women and
Children: The Cases of Bangladesh, pp.32 & 33, Ittefak, 28 October 1993, UBINIG,
1995) ** - Policy and Law? -
The Bangladesh constitution provides that the "State Shall endeavor to prevent
gambling and prostitution. "Reading the various provisions of different laws,
the prostitute is considered a victim, however, despite rigid provisions, the
Penal Code provides in the following sections protection to women who are
victims of the sexual offences of illicit intercourse, such as:
Section 364A - Whoever, kidnaps or abducts any person under the age of ten, in
order that such a person may be or subjected to slavery or to the lust of any
person shall be punished with death or with imprisonment for life or for
rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to 14 years and may not be
less than 7 years. Section 366A - Whoever, by any means whatsoever, induces
any minor girl under the age of eighteen years to go from any place or to do any
act with the intent that such a girl may be or knowing that it is likely that
she will be, forded or seduced to illicit intercourse with another person shall
be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to 10 years and shall also be
liable to fine. Section 373 - Whoever buys, hires or otherwise obtains
possession of any person under the ate of eighteen years with the intent that
such person shall at any age be employed or used for the purpose of prostitution
or illicit intercourse with any person or knowing it likely that such person
will at any age be employed or used for such purpose with imprisonment of either
description for a term which may extend 10 years and fine. Any prostitute or any
person keeping or managing a brothel, who buys, hires or otherwise obtains
possession of a female under the age of 18 years, shall until the contrary is
proved, be presumed to have obtained possession of such female with the intent
that she shall be used for the purpose of prostitution. ("The Laws Are
Contradictory," Sigma Huda, founder of the Bangladesh National Women's Lawyers
Association, Convenor, CATW, 1997) The Bangladeshi cabinet has
approved the death penalty for crimes against women including trafficking, rape
and murder. They raised the penalty from 10 years in prison following an
increase in trafficking in which the victims included girls as young as six.
("Bangladesh proposes death for crime against women," Reuters, 31 March 1998)
Convicted traffickers can receive the death penalty. Only one person has
received this sentence. (CATW - Asia Pacific, Trafficking in Women and
Prostitution in the Asia Pacific) The Penal Code of 1860 contains
provisions for kidnapping, which in general covers trafficking also. Inspite of
there being provisions in the Penal Code, these were not being effective in
stopping trafficking because of various implementation problems. In 1983 a new
Ordinance, the Cruelty to Women (Deterrent Punishment) Ordinance was
promulgated. It replaced the relevant sections of the Penal Code. This law
increased the punishment to life imprisonment and death penalty for kidnapping
or abducting women, trafficking of women and children, attempt to cause death,
acid throwing, rape etc. (Bangladesh CEDAW Report, 1 April 1997) The Cruelty
to Women Ordinance, passed in 1983, calls for sentences of 14 years to life
imprisonment for kidnapping or abduction of women, but this is rarely carried
out, as there are many loopholes. (Trafficking in Women and Children: The Cases
of Bangladesh, p.21, UBINIG, 1995) In 1995 another law, the Woman and
Child Repression (Special Provisions) Act 1995 was enacted. It provides for
capital punishment to offenders. It debars the granting of bail to persons
accused of heinous offenses against women and children. The penalty imposed in
section 8 of this act for trafficking and associated offenses is life
imprisonment and fine. Section 9 stipulates a penalty of 10 years with a minimum
of 7 years imprisonment for abduction to commit immoral act on women and
children. This Act provides for the setting up of separate courts to try cases
coming under it, one in each district. So far ten such courts have been
established. It is proposed to review their performance and effectiveness before
setting up the courts in other districts. (Bangladesh CEDAW Report, 1 April
1997) ** - Official Response and
Action... - Yes!... It is... The process of repatriation for victims of
traffic, who are often held in jail where they are continuously abused and
re-victimized, is lengthy due to a general lack of action and interest of
Bangladeshi embassies, and the bureaucracy between the Ministries of Women and
Child Affairs, Home Affairs, Foreign Affairs, and Social Welfare. (Fawzia Karim
Firoze & Salma Ali of the Bangladesh National Women Layer Association,"
Bangladesh Country Paper: Law and Legislation") Hundreds, and maybe
thousands, of Bangladeshi women and children are held in foreign prisons, jails,
shelters and detention centers awaiting repatriation. Many have been held for
years. In India, 26 women, 27 girls, 71 boys and 13 children of unknown gender
are held in Lilua Shelter, Calcutta; Sheha Shelter, Calcutta; Anando Ashram,
Calcutta; Alipur Children's Home, Delhi; Nirmal Chaya Children's Home, Delhi;
Prayas Observation House for Boys; Delhi; Tihar Jail, Delhi; Udavam Kalanger,
Bangalore; Umar Khadi, Bangaore; Kishalay, West Bengal; Kuehbihar, West Bengal
and Baharampur, West Bengal. (Fawzia Karim Firoze & Salma Ali of the Bangladesh
National Women Layer Association," Bangladesh Country Paper: Law and
Legislation") Barisal Police arrested two traffickers and rescued 100 men,
women and children who were to be sent to India illegally. The victims were kept
in Sagorika Hotel after being lured by the promise of jobs in India. They came
from Sandip, Hatia, and different islands of Noakhali, and were transported by
ship from Chittagong. The traffickers received 600-1000 Taka from each person as
transportation cost. (Ittefak and Jonokontho reports 15 December 1993,
Trafficking in Women and Children: The Cases of Bangladesh, p.24, Ittefak and
Jonokontho, 15 December 1993, UBINIG, 1995) In 1992, Bombay, India,
police intercepted the traffic of 25 children, 5 to 8 years old. The children
and trafficker were held in the same jail. Three years later, 12 of the children
were returned to their homes. (Fawzia Karim Firoze & Salma Ali of the Bangladesh
National Women Layer Association," Bangladesh Country Paper: Law and
Legislation") The Government is aware of the problem of trafficking
and has taken up measures to prevent it. One such measure is the strengthening
of border posts. However, the sheer length of Bangladesh's border with India and
Burma makes it impossible to prevent people crossing the borders. Another
measure is the strengthening of legislation and increasing punishments for
trafficking. (Bangladesh CEDAW Report, 1 April 1997) In July 1993 a case was
filed against a woman, who trafficked three young girls to India in previous
months. Bhorer Kagoj, 29 October 1993, Trafficking in Women and Children: The
Cases of Bangladesh, p.28, Bhorer Kagoj, 29 October 1993, UBINIG, 1995)
** - Communities need more active action of NGOs...
- You have right!... At a recently held workshop on child trafficking organized
by the Bangladesh Shishu Adhikar Forum in December, 1996 a South-East Asian and
a National Action Plan were prepared for NGOs active in the area of trafficking.
It was decided to undertake networking and training on databases/information and
experience sharing by a Core Group with representatives from Nepal, Pakistan,
India and Bangladesh. The first meeting of the regional Core Group will take
place in March 1997 and training is to be arranged between August and December
1997. The Bangladesh National Plan focuses on legal protection through
implementation of existing laws; awareness raising on trafficking; awareness
raising and training on laws related to trafficking. It is proposed that
law-enforcing agencies in collaboration with NGOs mobilize the community through
local government bodies, educational institutions, religious institutions and at
the national level through the media. (Bangladesh CEDAW Report, 1 April 1997)
In Bangladesh, there is only one shelter with the means to help victims of
trafficking. The women and children have awaited repatriation there for as long
as 4 1/2 years. (Fawzia Karim Firoze & Salma Ali of the Bangladesh National
Women Lawyer Association," Bangladesh Country Paper: Law and Legislation")
** - Official Corruption and Collaboration looks like a
cancer... - Unfortunately, the West authorities are the smart liars, on
many case... Although laws against trafficking exist, their implementation
remains weak. Although the new laws have increased penalties their application
has certain technical problems which are in the process of being identified.
There is scope for misapplication and harassment of innocent persons. The law
enforcing authorities and the judiciary need to be better sensitized about the
issues involved. There is a need for stronger action against members of law
enforcing authorities who are themselves involved in trafficking. Regional
cooperation is essential to coordinate legal and administrative measures and
procedures. Information needs to be shared and extradition of offenders allowed.
Victims are sometimes charged with prostitution or immoral behaviour and put in
jail. The repatriation of Bangladeshi women trafficked abroad needs to be
facilitated. (Bangladesh CEDAW Report, 1 April 1997) More than 9 000 girls
are trafficked each year from Nepal and Bangladesh into bondage in India and
Pakistan, often with the acquiescence or cooperation of state officials.
(http://www.amnesty.org.uk/news/press/releases/22_april_1998-0.shtml, 22 April
1998) In Bangladesh, government and health officials deny services to
prostituted women and their children on the sole basis that the woman is in
prostitution. ("Govts urged to be more active against trafficking of women,
children," Dhaka Daily Star, 30 June 1998) Trafficking is carried out
by regional gangs who are well organized and who have links with the various law
enforcing agencies, which is why only a very small percentage of the traffickers
are caught or the victims recovered. (Bangladesh CEDAW Report, 1 April 1997).
**

- IKEA and Bengalian Mafia have a common point; IKEA's false National Socialist
administration betrayed democracy-seekers and European institutions people
during WW II and Bengalian Mafia's false muslim administration betray
asylum-seekers and European institutions during Cold War.
- Both works for Zionist Imperialism...
- It's true... Two face of a kinky coin...

**

- Tv Independent Laponia boradcasts new version of Slavery, specially thus
Bengalian neoZionist Mafia rules... Ongoing documentary... - Let's watch
it!.. - Nowadays, many authorities account Prostitution as Slavery...
- In fact, it is real slavery... In Bangladesh, there are 60 000 -100 000 people
in prostitution. (Government, CARE Bangladesh, (Wijaya Kannangara, Executive
International Division Sarvodaya Movement of Sri Lanka, "Paper on Cultural
Violation") Approximately 1 million men buy prostituted women and children in
Bangladesh. (Wijaya Kannangara, Executive International Division Sarvodaya
Movement of Sri Lanka, "Paper on Cultural Violation") 65 percent of 135
surveyed women and girls in brothels in Bangladesh were between age 11 and 13;
33 percent were between age 13 and 15. (BNWLA survey, police estimates, Fawzia
Karim Firoze & Salma Ali of the Bangladesh National Women Layer Association,"
Bangladesh Country Paper: Law and Legislation") There are 15 000 to 20 000
children in street prostitution in Dhaka, most of whom are in prostitution
before reaching 12 years of age. (BNWLA survey, police estimates, Fawzia Karim
Firoze & Salma Ali of the Bangladesh National Women Layer Association,"
Bangladesh Country Paper: Law and Legislation") Bangladeshi women, who have
been in prostitution, fear and risk being killed by their own families through
honor-killings. (CATW - Asia Pacific, Trafficking in Women and Prostitution in
the Asia Pacific) The Tanbazar brothel in Narayanganj is a market for the
sale of minor girls. At least 50 minors were kept hidden in the brothel, and
when discovered, police did not attempt to help the girls imprisoned there or
arrest the owners. (Bangladesh National Women Lawyers Association, "Open sale of
little girls at Tanbaza brothel," Daily Star, 2 July 1998)
** - Are there any polite Policy and Law?... -
Relatively...Prostitution is legal in Bangladesh. (Wijaya Kannangara, Executive
Intenational Division Sarvodaya Movement of Sri Lanka, "Paper on Cultural
Violation") The promotion of Export Processing Zones, which follow
special laws on all forms of violence, encourages industries of child
prostitution and other forms of sexual exploitation. (Fawzia Karim Firoze and
Salma Ali of the Bangladesh National Women Layer Association," Bangladesh
Country Paper: Law and Legislation") In Bangladesh, the justice system
entitles a sexual offender to a privileged position, which is a major
contributor into forcing women into silence. (Sigma Huda, "Laws and Legislation
Relating to Sexual Exploitation") Government and health officials deny services
to prostituted women and their children on the sole basis that the woman is in
prostitution. ("Govts urged to be more active against trafficking of women,
children," Dhaka Daily Star, 30 June 1998) The
Suppression of Immoral Trafficking Act, 1993 provides for punishment for forcing
a girl into prostitution. Abetment by having custody or charge of the girls is
also a crime. Section 11 of the Act prohibits the detention of any female child
under the age of 18 against her will in any house, room or places in which
prostitution is carried out. The section provides a penalty of maximum three
years of imprisonment or fine or both. (Bangladesh CEDAW Report, 1 April 1997)
There are no statistics on the numbers of prostitutes. The Bangladesh Bureau of
Statistics enumerates them as "destitutes" and does not recognize prostitution
as an occupation. The Constitution states that "the State shall adopt effective
measures to prevent prostitution and gambling" [Part II, Fundamental Principles
of State Policy, Section 18 (2)]. There are laws against forcing anyone into
prostitution or into "immoral acts" (Penal Code 72, 73, 74). Soliciting is also
against the law (Criminal Procedure Code). However there are no laws against a
person of 18 or above engaging in sexual activity in exchange for money. It is
sufficient for a prostitute to have an affidavit delivered by a magistrate
stating that she is above 18 for her not to be arrested by the Police. That does
not preclude harassment and being asked for bribes. (Bangladesh CEDAW Report, 1
April 1997) Prostitution is technically neither legal nor illegal but
exists in a gap in the law, as in many countries. Therefore prostitutes do not
have any legal protection, nor can the State take any legal measures against
them. As citizens they can demand the same fundamental rights from the State,
such as the right to protection and security, the right to shelter and to basic
amenities. (Bangladesh CEDAW Report, 1 April 1997) While laws relating to
violence against women, including rape, apply equally to prostitutes, in
practice they are discriminated against as they will be classified as
'habituated' to sexual intercourse and proof will be considered to be harder to
give/accept. Prostitutes are often subjected to harassment and violence from the
Police who are theoretically supposed to protect their rights. (Bangladesh CEDAW
Report, 1 April 1997) ** Organized and
Institutionalized Sexual Exploitation and Violence: A large percentage of
the 120 000 women in the garment industry suffer sexual exploitation. There is
no legislation protecting workers in the informal sector laws (Fawzia Karim
Firoze & Salma Ali of the Bangladesh National Women Layer Association,"
Bangladesh Country Paper: Law and Legislation") During the 1971 war in
Bangladesh, 200 000 women and girls were sexually abused and raped by soldiers.
(Sigma Huda, "Laws and Legislation Relating to Sexual Exploitation") Self
appointed village bodies have issued fatwas against women for "incorrect
behavior." In several cases women have been violently punished and murdered.
(Fawzia Karim Firoze and Salma Ali of the Bangladesh National Women Layer
Association," Bangladesh Country Paper: Law and Legislation") Muslim and
Bangladeshi state laws prohibit the marriage of girl children. This prohibition
is ignored and the practice defended by state and religious leaders, especially
in rural areas where girls as young as 10 are illegally married. (Fawzia Karim
Firoze and Salma Ali of the Bangladesh National Women Lawyer Association,"
Bangladesh Country Paper: Law and Legislation") Women held in "safe
custody" and other forms of confinement are often abused, raped and murdered by
law enforcement officials. (Fawzia Karim Firoze and Salma Ali of the Bangladesh
National Women Layer Association," Bangladesh Country Paper: Law and
Legislation") In 1997, 21 Bangladeshi women reported being raped by
police officers, 7 of whom were in custody. ('Ain-o-Salish Kendra NGO records,
Tabibul Islam, "Rape of Minors Worry Parents," Inter Press Service, 8 April
1998) ** Policy and Law...
Rape laws in Bangladesh are outdated and ineffective, such as the 1860 Penal
Code and the Law of criminal Procedure 1860, which demands that eyewitnesses
testify to the act. Of 311 women surveyed who had been raped, none recieved any
form of justice because of loopholes in the law. (Ain-o-Salish Kendra survey,
Tabibul Islam, "Rape of Minors Worry Parents," Inter Press Service, 8 April
1998) Within the Prevention of Repression Against Women and Children Act,
1997, there is no provision for punishment of sexual harassment or mental
torture of those held in custody. (Fawzia Karim Firoze and Salma Ali of the
Bangladesh National Women Layer Association," Bangladesh Country Paper: Law and
Legislation") The Department of Women's Affairs has established a Cell Against
Violence Against Women. In 1996 it dealt with 83 cases of acid throwing; 1415
cases of rape; 1664 cases of physical assault; 138 cases of trafficking; 85
cases of procurement of women for illicit reasons; 594 cases of dowry; 115 cases
of maintenance, and 1539 cases of suicide; a total of 5933 cases in all. In
1995/96 the Dhaka unit received 1176 cases. It carried out 550 cases of
restoration of family relations, 363 cases of procurement of maintenance and
dower money of an amount of 688,280 Takas. Legal counselling was provided in 185
cases. Twenty-nine cases were filed in court. Ninety-one cases were sent to
other agencies. (Bangladesh CEDAW Report, 1 April 1997)
** Case... Three Bangladeshi policemen were sentenced to
death for the 1995 rape and murder of a 16-year-old girl in a highway patrol
van. The police claimed she was only a prostitute. Riots followed this
pronouncement in which the police fired on the crowd killing 7 people.
(Associated Press, 1 September 1997) In October 1996, Shima Chowdhury and
her boyfriend, Abdul Hafiz were arrested for walking together in public without
being married. The police did not keep a record of the arrest, and held them
both without allowing them to be seen by a court, which is illegal. While
detained, Shima was drugged and raped to the point of unconsciousness. In July
1997in Bangladesh four policemen were acquitted of raping Shima Chowdhury. She
died in "safe custody" under mysterious circumstances after reporting the rape.
"Safe custody" is used by police for victims of rape, sexual assault,
trafficking and kidnapping. It purports to provide safety for those in danger of
further assault, but in reality it is a form of punishment. The women are kept
with other prisoners and are treated as if they are charged with, or convicted
for, an offence. ("Bangladesh: Failure by state protects alleged rapist," AI
Index, 13 May 1997) ** Today,
in modern contemporary, in year 2000, ISLAM-gang is free to do what they can!
Both Bengalian-Pakistani-Indian etc. gangs working (!) free in Scandinavia...
Sweden promises a paradise to criminal persons if they cooperate with the
Establishment. Anyway; how could a gang succee (!) on so many cruel
things if governments didn't save their crimes?! **
Sweden and Bangladesh violated against the U.N.'s Conventions -Any other
Forms of Slavery which U.N. observed in the 1990s- Although the world is no
longer blighted by the forms of slavery which were practised openly in many
countries during the nineteenth and even early twentieth centuries. and against
which both governments and non-governmental organisations campaigned slavery
nevertheless continues to be reported in a wide range of forms. To most
people slavery conveys images of the Atlantic slave trade of the eighteenth and
nineteenth centuries with all its nightmarish horrors. They consequently
consider slavery to he simply an anachronism from a barbaric past. Abhorrence of
slavery is professed everywhere. National laws ban slavery and the prohibition
is enshrined in international treaties. notably the 1948 Universal Declaration
of Human Rights. Article 4 of which guarantees that "No one shall be held in
slavery or servitude, slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all
their forms." Yet slavery still occurs. Ships transporting slaves
and cotton fields cultivated by slave labour may be a thing of the past. but the
horrors and humiliation associated with slavery have not disappeared. They have
simply taken on other forms. Some contemporary slaves still work in the fields.
but they also provide manual labour in many other industries. in urban as well
as rural settings. These contemporary forms of slavery are as old as traditional
"chattel" slavery and attempts to eradicate them have so far been much less
successful than last century's campaigns against the traditional slave trade.
During the course of the twentieth century the international community has
recognised that slavery takes many forms and is found in many different parts of
the world. The debates which preceded the adoption of the two main international
conventions against slavery. the first in 1926 and the second in 1956, provide
ample information about the various forms of servitude which the international
community wished to prohibit. However, as the twentieth century comes to a
close. the governments of states which have not yet ratified the main
international conventions against slavery tend to assume that slavery in all its
forms has been abolished and that there is no need to take steps to accede to
these conventions. Similarly, states which ratified them in the past tend to
assume there is no longer any need for new laws or other measures to ensure that
the conventions are implemented. In practice, there is a pressing need for laws
and action to ensure that new forms of exploitation and oppression do not take
the form of slavery, and that those responsible for slavery-like practices are
identified and stopped. When it adopted an international
treaty prohibiting slavery almost 60 years ago, the United Nations' predecessor,
the League of Nations, gave the following definition of slavery: "Slavery
is the status or condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers
attaching to the right of ownership are exercised." (Article 1 (1) of the 1926
Slavery Convention) Although this Convention was intended primarily to
abolish slavery and the slave trade in countries where these were still legal
practices, this definition of slavery makes clear that the international
community was also determined to abolish a wide range of other practices which
involved partial "powers" of ownership and were considered to be "analogous to
slavery", even though they had not previously been defined as slavery. These
included debt bondage, false adoption (of children to work as domestic
servants), servitude imposed by serfdom or caste, and domestic slavery. Some of
these were the subject of explicit prohibition by the United Nations 1956
Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and
Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery. Others were not defined and
prohibited explicitly, but again the discussions which preceded the adoption of
the Convention make it clear that they were intended to he covered by the
Convention and that states should take action to prevent them from occurring.
The explanations given below concern the different forms of slavery which
continue to he reported at the end of the twentieth century and which still
require action by governments to prevent them. They begin by looking at the
cases of conventional slavery which still occur, as well as the after-effects of
slavery for former slaves and their descendants, which still require action by
governments. The four "institutions and practices similar to slavery" which were
banned by the 1956 Supplementary Convention are then described. each of which
persists in the 1990s: together they affect millions of victims. These are: debt
bondage; serfdom; servile marriage; and child labour. Finally. three other forms
of servitude are described. which exhibit many of the characteristics of
slavery: servile domestic works forced labour. and servitude for ritual or
religious purposes. Governments are under an obligation to take urgent remedial
action to prevent these if they amount to slavery-like practices, as is often
the case. In a final section, the groups of people who are most vulnerable to
slavery are described. including social groups which are labelled in their own
societies as having near-permanent servile status.
1. Traditional "Chattel" Slavery Although there are no countries in
which slavery remains a legal practice, there are several countries in which
traditional "chattel" slavery was only abolished recently or where despite
abolition in the past there has been a recent resurgence of traditional slavery.
Countries experiencing a resurgence in slavery are mostly those affected by
armed conflict somewhere in their territory. In the areas of conflict the rule
of law has effectively been suspended and soldiers or armed militia are able to
force people to work for them unpaid (ie perform forced labour) without fear of
retribution; such practices have been reported chiefly in areas controlled by
armed groups which have not achieved international recognition. However, there
have also been recent reports of government soldiers forcing civilians to work
as slaves, outside any legal framework. Soldiers and militias have also been
reported to engage in the slave trade, selling those they have captured to work
for others. There are several countries in which slavery
has been formally abolished relatively recently, where insufficient measures
have been taken by the authorities to implement abolition. In such cases, both
former slaves who have in theory been released from servitude, and members of
their families (even those born after slavery was officially abolished) are
still obliged to provide services to a former owner or owner's family. Evidently
in such cases it is important that the state concerned should be reporting on a
regular basis to the international community about the progress made towards the
complete eradication of all slavery-like practices. However, neither the 1926
Slavery Convention, nor the 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of
Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery
require States Parties to report on measures taken against slavery, nor have
they established any form of permanent treaty-monitoring committee (in contrast
to most recently adopted United Nations human rights instruments). As a result,
it is only if governments or non-governmental organisations choose to present
information to the annual meeting of the United Nations Working Group on
Contemporary Forms of Slavery, which was established in 1974 and reports to the
Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities (and
indirectly to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights), that the
international community becomes aware of persisting patterns of slavery or
slavery-like practices. Article 1 of the Supplementary Convention on the
Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar
to Slavery prohibits " (a) Debt bondage, that is to say, the status or
condition arising from a pledge b) a debtor of his personal services or those of
a person under his control as security do m a debt, if the value of those
services as reasonably assessed is not applied towards the liquidation of the
debt or the length and nature of those services are not respectively limited and
defined:'' The Chief Justice of a country in which debt bondage. also
known as "bonded labour". still occurs, has described it in the following terms:
"[Bonded labourers] are non-beings, exiles of Civilisation, living a life worse
than that of animals, for the animals are at least free to roam about as the)
like"... "7his system, under which one person can be bonded to provide labour
for another for years and years until an alleged debt is supposed to be wiped
out, which never seems to happen during the lifetime of the bonded labourer, is
totally incompatible with the nets egalitarian socio-economic order which we
have promised to build... " Hundreds of thousands of bonded labourers
are tied to their employers and places of employment because of loans which they
or their parents have received. The Supplementary Convention does not prohibit
people from taking loans in money or in kind and then repaying their debt by
working for the person who has given the loan. However, it does forbid any cases
of "debt bondage" in which the precise terms of the repayment have not been
specified (so the person making the loan can potentially add unspecified
interest or other costs to the loan), or in which work done by the debtor is not
rewarded at least at the same rate paid for other similar work.
Traditionally bonded labour occurred mainly in the agricultural sector in rural
areas where bonded labourers worked as general servants as well as in farming.
In cases of chronic bondage, debts are inherited from one generation to the
next, maintaining members of a family in permanent bondage in return for an old
loan, the details of which have long been forgotten In some cases employers who
are owed money "sell" the debt to a new employer; the difference between such
transactions and the slave trade is one of semantics more than substance. In
extreme cases, bonded labourers receive no payment at all for the work they do;
at the other end of the spectrum they may be bonded by relatively small advances
on their wages, which are endlessly repeated, so that they become "bonded" to
their employer. Nowadays there are also many cases of shorter term
bondage. For example, migrant workers who agree to travel to another province or
country in order to work may then discover that they are obliged to work unpaid
on the grounds that their wages must be used to repay the costs of their travel,
accommodation and meals. Loans are accepted by people who work not only on farms
but in a wide variety of low status manual jobs, for example in stone quarries,
at brick or charcoal kilns, at looms making carpets or cloth, preparing fish or
other sea-food for freezing, and making a variety of articles out of glass.
Apart from the manual nature of these jobs, they are generally hazardous and
threatening to health. In many cases entire families have to work (for example
in stone quarries or at brick kilns) to pay off debts. In other cases, parents
"pawn" their own children, sometimes from the age of as little as four or five
years of age, in return for loans which they never repay; the child consequently
remains a bonded labourer for the rest of his or her childhood.
3. Serfdom Article 1 of the Supplementary Convention also prohibits
" (b) Serfdom. that is to say, the condition or status of a tenant who is by
law, custom or agreement bound to live and labour on land belonging to another
person and to render some determinate service to such other person, whether for
reward or not, and is not free to change his status, '' It is not just
debts which tie farmers to a landlord. In many countries individuals, families
or entire social groups have traditionally been obliged to work for others for
little or no reward. Although this status usually has no basis in law, the
practices nevertheless persist and are frequently enforced with violence at
local level. For example. many agricultural workers are not able to get
access to work or to land on which to produce food for their families unless
they agree to work on a permanent basis for richer landlords. either on their
farms or in the homes. They have to accept a form of serf or servile status. The
size of their landlord's estates varies as does the number of serfs involved
from just one or two to several hundred. Some large estates are a law unto
themselves, creating their own economies and currency. for example "paying"
their workers in a special non-official form of currency which can only be
exchanged for goods at a shop run on behalf of the landlord. Elsewhere, the
same sort of servile status, although formally abolished in law, receives
legitimacy through local religious beliefs. This is particularly the case in
countries with caste systems, where at village level particular families are
obliged both by tradition and sometimes by violent coercion to work unpaid as
sweepers, cleaners or in various forms of agricultural work. In extreme cases,
the services which workers must provide include domestic work both during the
day and at night, and on some occasions the sexual services of women workers or
the wives of male workers. The governments of countries in which
such practices persist are obliged by the Supplementary Convention to take
action to end them, not just in law (for example, by declaring caste or serf
status to be abolished), but also in practice.
4. Servile Marriage Marriage is Anwarul and cooperated
Mafia-members' second class mask; they are using 'marriage-masks' if Swedish
Migration Office wake up... Article 1 of the Supplementary Convention
prohibits "(c) Any institution or practice whereby. "(i) A
woman, without the right to refuse, is promised or given in marriage on payment
of a consideration in money or in and to her parents, guardian, family or any
other person or group, or "(ii) The husband of a woman, his family, or his
clan, has the right to transfer her to another person for value received or
otherwise; or "(iii) A woman on the death of her husband is liable
to be inherited by another person, " This prohibition affects a wide range
of practices which continue to be reported in the 1990s. Taken together with
other international agreements. it imposes significant obligations on
governments to make changes to both the law and practices in their countries.
not only those directly concerning marriage. hut also others which have an
indirect effect. A typical case in which this article of the
Supplementary Convention is violated occurs when a 12-yearKld girl is told that
her family has arranged her marriage to a 60-year-old man. Ostensibly she has
the right to refuse. but in practice she has no opportunity to exercise that
right and is unaware that she can do so. The marriage is considered to
constitute "servile marriage" and to be a form of slavery if a payment of any
kind is made for the girl that exceeds the amount of gifts or money customarily
exchanged at the time of marriage in the country or culture concerned. In many
cultures it is traditional for money or goods to exchange hands at the time of
marriage. In some cases it is the husband or his family which pays bridewealth
to the bride's family; this practice can evidently deteriorate into a form of
"purchase" for the bride and her services, and as such is prohibited by the
Supplementary Convention. In other cultures, it is the bride's family which must
provide money or goods to the husband or his family, and their failure to
provide large enough amounts sometimes provokes acts of violence against the
newly-married wife. In order to reduce the opportunities for servile marriages
of this sort to occur, the Supplementary Convention also imposes an obligation
on States Parties to take other positive action. Article 2 stipulates that "
With a view to bringing to an end the institutions and practices mentioned in
article 1 (c) of this Convention, the States Parties undertake to prescribe,
where appropriate, suitable minimum ages of marriage, to encourage the use of
facilities Whereby the consent of both parties to a marriage may be freely
expressed in the presence of a Competent civil or religious authority and to
encourage the registration of marriages. " In practice, many states which
have acceded to the Supplementary Convention have not yet implemented Article 2.
Subsequent international instruments have reinforced the obligation that states
should make the registration of marriages compulsory. For example, the
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women,
adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1979, stipulates in its Article 16 that:
"2. The betrothal and the marriage of a child shall have no legal effect, and
all necessary action, including legislation, shall be taken to specify a minimum
age for marriage and to make the registration of marriages in an official
registry Compulsory". The final part of Article 1 of the
Supplementary Convention dealing with servile marriage (iii) becomes relevant
when, just a few years after her marriage, the same young girl's older husband
dies. In numerous countries the young widow is "inherited" by a male member of
her husband's family, often a surviving brother; this practice is known as "the
levirate". She is remarried whether or not she desires the new marriage and
whether or not her new husband already has an existing wife. This form of
inheritance is sometimes justified by those who practise it on the grounds that
it ensures the widow is looked after and does not become destitute. However, she
would only fall into destitution if she is already the victim of a servile
marriage in which she is denied the right to property of her own or the
opportunity to develop her own sources of livelihood. The practice of
"the levirate" is clearly condemned by the Supplementary Convention and the
governments of states which have ratified the Convention are under an obligation
to eliminate it. For the woman concerned is being treated as a piece of
property, unless, that is, it can he shown that she enters into her new marriage
freely and with her own consent. That is. she should not feel coerced because
other local customs prevent her either from inheriting enough property from her
original marriage to maintain a reasonable income or from generating her own
income. The Supplementary Convention is also quite categorical in banning any
sale or transfer of a married woman by her husband or his family to a new
husband in exchange for money or other goods.
5. Child Labour Article 1 of the Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of
Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery
prohibits " (d) Any institution or practice whereby a child or young
person under the age of 18 years, is delivered b) either or both of his natural
parents or by his guardian to another person, whether for reward or not, with a
view to the exploitation of the child or young person or of his labour. "
This is not a prohibition of all child labour. for the emphasis is on preventing
parents from passing their child on to another person (whether or not any money
is exchanged) who effectively gains control of the child and the child's labour.
The prohibition in the Supplementary Convention was designed among other things
to prevent children from being exploited as domestic workers, either through the
practice of "sham adoption" (ie being nominally welcomed into a new household as
a member of the family, when the real motive is to require the new member to
work as an unpaid domestic servant). In reality it remains a common
sight in countries throughout the world to see a child of 10 or 12 years of age,
usually a girl child, sweeping a house or scrubbing the floor or front porch.
This is sometimes a member of the family, but all too often it is a domestic
worker "employed" in conditions of near slavery. Children's labour is also
exploited in other ways which contravene the Supplementary Convention, as well
as other international human rights standards such as the United Nations 1989
Convention on the Rights of the Child. Article 32 contains clear principles to
protect children from the exploitation of their labour: while children may work,
the Convention stipulates that their jobs should not be "hazardous" and should
not "interfere with [their] education" or "be harmful to the child's health or
physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development." The priority due to
primary education means that children below the age of 12 should not have jobs.
Child labourers are routinely prevented from attending school, despite being of
primary school age, and, in the case of child domestic workers, even though
there may be other children attending school in the household where they work.
In all cases child labourers are dangerously vulnerable to physical abuse (both
beatings and sexual abuse), excessively long hours or being made to work in
dangerous or cramped conditions. Girl domestic workers, in particular, are
vulnerable to sexual abuse. Although many countries have laws regulating the
hours or conditions for child labourers, employers often avoid visits by labour
inspectors by claiming that children are working in "cottage industries" or
"family units". Debt bondage. described above. affects many children
as well as adults. Parents "pawn" their own children. sometimes from the age of
as little as four or five years, in return for loans which they never repay.
Often they are pawned to employers who stress the need for what they call the
"nimble fingers" of children to undertake particular forms of work, when in fact
they are seeking a docile labour force which can he coerced into obeying orders
and is unable to defend itself or organise any collective action in its own
defence. For example. a 10-year-old boy works 14 hours a day at a loom. At night
he sleeps under the loom for his parents live hundreds of kilometres away. They
sent him away to work in exchange for a loan which will in theory be repaid out
of his wages. He is no longer chained to the loom. as he was when. at the age of
eight. he first started work and tried to escape.
- OTHER FORMS OF SLAVERY- (LIKE 'PRACTICE-PLACES', most used model by Swedish
Employment Offices') , comments FM Channel Independent Laponia
- Let's listen!
- 1. Migrant Labour It is not only children who find themselves
doing domestic work in conditions of near slavery. And although there are
millions of domestic workers employed in the world, they are largely invisible.
working by themselves in private homes. Throughout the world
domestic workers are generally afforded inadequate protection by the law as far
as minimum wages or conditions are concerned, and some categories of domestic
workers are subjected to slavery, particularly children and immigrants who work
and live in the same house as their employer and are paid little or nothing for
their work. Both are particularly vulnerable, being cut off both from their own
families and from local society and the possible protection which social
contacts or local institutions might provide. Cases of enslaved domestic workers
continue to be reported in developed countries -- where servants are brought in
from other countries, either legally or illegally, and then treated like slaves.
In many cases domestic workers receive low wages or no wages at all, on the
grounds that they receive food and lodging, but there is no attempt to ensure
that this payment "in kind" is worth as much as the monetary wage which workers
would be paid for similar long hours in any other comparable sector. Their
living conditions, as well as conditions of work, are often extremely harsh, but
are virtually never inspected by any independent authority. Before both the
conventions against slavery were adopted, there were discussions about whether
the definition of slavery should explicitly prohibit domestic slavery or define
the circumstances in which domestic work amounted to slavery. The conclusion,
however, was that th


dink - 10/23/2003

dank


Bob Harper - 1/24/2003

Mr. Beres's essay was interesting, but he doesn't make any mention of the obvious solution: pay the players. The notion of pure amateurism is dead in these days of million dollar contracts for coaches, with plenty more for shoe contracts, endorsements, TV shows, and summer camps. And yet at the same time the NCAA makes it a 'death penalty' offense for a poor kid of great talent to accept money or perks beyond tightly prescribed 'scholarship' limits.

Ought we be surprised when, in the presence of all that money, some of the talent believes it ought to receive fair compensation, and is willing to accept it from an illegitimate source if it is not forthcoming from a legitimate source?

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