;

European history



  • What, Exactly, Is Fascism?

    by Ruth Ben-Ghiat

    Are you confused about the meaning of Fascism? If so, you're not alone. Benito Mussolini, the creator of Fascism, famously did not define it until 1932.



  • Eastern Europe Brought Soccer Into the Modern Age. Why is it a Wasteland Now?

    A legacy of innovation spurred by Hungarian clubs in the 1930s and 1950s sustained high quality soccer in eastern Europe through the fall of communism, but changing economic and social currents have diminished the competitiveness of former eastern bloc countries in today's big-money game. 



  • The Danger of Encouraging Americans to Inform on Each Other

    by Christine Adams

    Governors like Virginia's Glenn Youngkin are repeating a tactic of despots throughout history: encouraging the public to denounce individuals to the authorities. Whether its witches or teachers, this is a formula for intimidation and conformity. 



  • What Happens When Kids Get Their History from Video Games?

    Bret Devereaux is trying to lead fellow historians to understand the influence a number of popular strategy games have for students understanding of both historical fact and the "mechanics" of historical change. 



  • Mary Elise Sarotte on the Buildup to the Ukraine Invasion

    The School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) professor discusses the post-Cold War paths of Ukraine and Russia as the context for this week's invasion, and argues that reviving lapsed treaties on intermediate nuclear forces and troop levels in Europe could support a cease-fire. 



  • Why Putin is Outfoxing the West

    by Walter Russell Mead

    Containing Russia's ambitions isn't impossible, but requires both acknowledging Putin's imperial goals and developing a coherent strategy beyond defusing each successive crisis and moving on. 



  • The Beginnings of Queer Citizenship in West Germany

    by Samuel Clowes Huneke

    An emerging gay activist culture in West Berlin in the 1970s made substantial gains in building cultural spaces and expanding tolerance, but struggled to build political solidarity out of sexual identity amid other social divisions.


  • Antisemitism is Toxic and Persistent. It's Not Inevitable

    by Ralph Seliger

    International Holocaust Remembrance Day (January 27) follows an armed hostage incident at a Texas synagogue. The author reflects on moments when societies have chosen to embrace or reject antisemitism at moments of crisis and concludes that while the risk to Jews today is real, it is not inevitable.