The Border Patrol Helped Create the "Browning" of AmericaHistorians in the News
tags: immigration, Border Patrol, Mexican American history, Latino/a history
Pedro Loza, now 74, recalls the exact moment he realized he would have to settle in the United States, despite his dream of returning to reside once again in his beloved Mexico.
He was working in construction in Chicago in the 1990s, watching Spanish-language TV news reporting on California’s spate of anti-immigrant policies, including the notorious Proposition 187, which targeted people without papers. President Clinton had begun construction of a steel border fence in San Diego and invested in helicopters, sensors, night scopes and all-terrain vehicles for the U.S. Border Patrol.
Loza and millions of others who previously zigzagged across the border — working seasonally in the U.S, while investing in a dream house or small business in Mexico — were trapped. Having come without papers, many feared if they returned home, they might not be able to reenter the U.S. to earn the wages they needed to see their dreams through.
“We realized that if we wanted to work in the U.S., we had to immigrate,” Loza told me. “We had to live here.”
That decade, Loza applied for citizenship, and for the first time, he began to accept the U.S. as home.
The average profile of arrivals at the Southwest border has changed dramatically since then, from single adult Mexican laborers to Central American families seeking asylum. Yet a new uptick in single adult economic migrants from Mexico is driving a familiar wave of anti-immigrant hysteria.
A recent Breitbart article — “Report: ‘Mostly’ Single Male Border Crossers Bussed to Louisiana Cities” — inspired comments such as “Their job is to vote communist democrat and rape women” and “They are REPLACING YOU, Louisiana.”
Now for the irony: The people who are so concerned about brown men entering this country are arguably the most responsible for the recent demographic shifts.
Most Mexicans who came before border militarization never planned to stay — only to work. The U.S. offered great pay but it felt foreign, with its English language and colder culture. Loza, for example, wanted to save to buy a tractor in Guanajuato, where he sent money to family and even purchased a cattle ranch. “My dream was always to return to Mexico,” he told me.
His daughter, Mireya Loza, is an associate professor of history at Georgetown University and author of “Defiant Braceros,” about the 1942-1964 “bracero” program for temporary migrant workers to fill wartime labor shortages. After employer abuses came to light and the program was abolished by Congress, many continued to cross the border for the same seasonal work. But now, they crossed illegally, stepping over trampled, paltry barbed wire in San Diego and elsewhere.
In the 1990s, California politicians cast those workers as criminals to pander to white racial anxiety. The resulting hysteria and enforcement closed off reverse migration.
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